You will need
- - the pruner;
- - reciprocating saw.
Begin to prune the vines in early spring, prior to the rapid SAP flow and swelling of eyes. Inspect the overwintered hive, and then assess his condition. The plant should be thinned to remove damaged, diseased and weak branches. Thick branches gently bend over to the side of the pruning shears and make the cut in a sliding motion. Vines should not collapse! If necessary, use a garden saw with divorced teeth.
Have Bush the second vegetation cut from 50 to 90% of an annual gain. Leave 2 strong escape, shortening them for 4-5 buds. Try to keep the wounds of the cut-off branches were small, especially on the old wood – otherwise you can cause necrosis of plant tissues. When removing branches at the base, some growers suggest leaving the pads are about 0.5 cm thick. The cut must be perpendicular to the axis of the escape and to be absolutely smooth.
Form the "skeleton" of a young Bush. In grapes it is necessary to artificially create a trunk (bole) is a perennial part of the plant, which will terminate at the first branching of the branches. Leave two sleeves (shoulder) – cut perennial vine. That they will grow new shoots and ripen berries.
Use popular pruning "fruit link". On each sleeve it is necessary to leave a small part from the vines with a couple of shoots of the current year. Lower – mote replacement – shorten to 3 buds. Top – fruit arrow about 6 buds. This is a very important escape you leave it for fruiting.
The speck of substitution will allow the Bush to continue its development. When the time comes the next crop of the vineyard, one vine it will again be left to the harvest, the other will be a new twig of substitution. Thus, you will create a so-called bilateral radial forming four sleeves. In the first growing season your task is to grow two strong escape, the second four, the third eight.
In the third year of life of the vineyard you need to form a full-fledged bushes. At this age they are unable to give the first crop, so adjust the bearing. Leave on each shoulder 2-3 developed escape, the rest cut off about 45 cm you will adjust and the number of inflorescences: leave 1 bunch of grapes with small berries on 1 escape; 1 bunch 2 escape to krupnoplodnaja varieties.
Pruning of the vineyard is complex and creative, it requires a lot of experience. Not to be mistaken with the formation of the Bush, it is necessary not only to study the special literature and constantly share experiences with experienced growers. It is important to predumat further development of vine, to see its strengths and weaknesses. Is that fruit not get hands full of vines. Instead, choose Deputy – healthy, strong run from 8 mm thick. New speck substitution can be a branch that is growing close to the trunk of the vine.