Advice 1: How to determine bolt size

Without fasteners master without hands: to deal with a fixed connection pieces of different designs constantly. Bolts, screws, nuts, screws, washers - best seller fasteners. The work is often important to know in advance the size of the bolt.
How to determine bolt size
You will need
  • - Caliper;
  • - the range.
Instruction
1
Bolts and nuts, similar to modern ones, appeared around the middle of the XV century They were made entirely by hand and therefore each combination of the "nut-bolt" was unique. The classic version of the connection of these two parts has improved over the years.

In a series of recent industrial achievements - development of special electronic devices that can automatically control the torque of this type of fastener.
2
Modern bolt - popular mounting products. Along with the nut it is designed for releasable connection of parts and is a cylindrical rod with external threads on one end and a head on the other. The head can be of different shapes: square, oval, cylindrical, conical, of six or four faces.
3
A large part of the national standards for fasteners, including bolts, provides the possibility of producing similar products (for a General view, by appointment). The only difference is the type of bolts and their performance.
4
Bolt size depends on the destination and is associated primarily with the outer diameter of the thread, as a bolt - threaded fastener. To determine the bolt diameter measure the outer diameter of the threaded caliper. If the threads are not applied across the length of the rod, the diameter of the bolt in its "bald" part is approximately the same as the diameter of the thread when measured at the tops of the coils.
5
What is considered the length of the bolt? As a rule, when the article designation indicates the length of the rod. Thus, the head height is not taken into account. Measure the length of the shank - get the length of the bolt. If you order in the metric measuring bolt М14х140, it means you need a bolt with a thread diameter of 14 mm, the rod length is 140 mm. the total overall length of the product with the height of the bolt head, for example, 8 mm is 148 mm.
6
Another parameter is the thread pitch of the bolt. Measure the distance between two nearby (neighbouring) vertices to the thread and you get the desired size. For example, М14х1 bolt 5 is a bolt with a diameter of 14 mm and thread pitch of 1.5 mm.
7
Another characteristic of some types of bolts size length of threaded end. To determine it, measure the part of the rod, which is intended for screwing the nuts.
8
There are many regulations which set out technical requirements for fasteners. For example, flange connections (namely, when they and screws are used) they are set out in GOST 20700-75. Design and dimensions of the fastener are regulated by GOST 9064-75,9065-75, 9066-75.
Note
Note: bolt size is not always a characteristic of its reliability. If the pressure flange connection is scheduled more than 25 kgf/cm2, the use of bolts is unacceptable. Defined by GOST 12816-80.
Useful advice
Don't forget that when ordering you will need the bolts it is necessary to consider not only the size but also the upcoming working conditions of the fasteners. Five groups of their quality are determined by the GOST 20700-75.

Advice 2 : How to measure the thread

In the manufacture of designs that use threaded connections, often have to pick up bolts and nuts so that the thread matched its parameters. For measuring the thread there are special devices.
How to measure the thread
You will need
  • Thread templates, thread gauges, thread micrometer
Instruction
1
To measure, use a special threaded pattern. It is a set of plates that bear teeth; thread pitch corresponding to the specific pattern marked on the plane of the plate. A set of templates with different step is sealed in the cassette. By means of a threaded template, you can only measure the value of the thread pitch, the deviation does not measure it. To determine the thread pitch for a particular product, attach the template to the thread, selecting one that will exactly match her.
2
For a comprehensive evaluation of the correct execution of the thread for details use thread gauges. Such calibers exist to control both external and internal threads. Before use, check the caliber of the part clean of chips and dirt. With the caliber must be handled carefully, preventing the threaded surface scratches.
3
When measuring threads of the outer and inner diameters, use a screw micrometer. The micrometer has a spindle and heel holes in which are mounted sets of interchangeable inserts. Inserts correspond to measured elements of the thread and its size. Secure the micrometer in a stand, set on the template or standard thread. The measurement error is 1 mm.

Advice 3 : How to measure thread pitch

The thread pitch is its fundamental characteristic. To determine its value, you can use an ordinary ruler. To make the measurement more accurate, it is better to use special devices.
How to measure thread pitch
You will need
  • - thread;
  • - the range;
  • - thread pitch gauge.
Instruction
1
Thread pitch is called the distance between the homonymous lateral sides of thread profile. It should be measured for the correct determination of this characteristic. Do this roughly by using a regular ruler. Measure the length of a certain number of threads.
2
Keep in mind that the more turns will be measured, the less will be the error. So depending on thread sizes to measure counts from 10 to 20 turns. The length of the counted number of turns, measured with a ruler, divide by the number of such coils. This will be the thread pitch. Measure the length in millimeters better. In that case, if the thread pitch needs to be measured in inches, perform a translation of magnitude.
3
For example, if you want to measure step a certain thread count 20 coils to reduce the measurement error (if there is a number of turns, if not, take less). Assume that you will get a measurement of the thread length 127 mm. Divide that number by 20 turns, and get the 6.35 mm. Is the thread pitch in millimeters.
4
If you need to transfer it to inches, take the value of one inch in mm, which is 25.4, and divide the resulting pitch 6.35 mm to this value. In this case will be 0.25 or 1/4" (inch). If the value is not obtained so exact, round it to the nearest fraction of an inch.
5
Because the vast majority of threads is done according to approved standards in order to unify the connection, measure the thread pitch of ratibora. This device is a set of special steel plates that have cutouts corresponding to the different types of thread. On the plate deposited values corresponding to varying the step length in millimeters or fractions of an inch. Produce dimension, applying to the various threads of the plate parallel to the thread axis, and check the clearance between the teeth on the light. If he lost, the value on the plate is one which indicates the step of the measured thread.

Advice 4 : How to perform the drawing of the nuts according to GOST

The work of a modern designer is very different from what it was a few decades ago. At his disposal is the power of software designers that perform for him all the routine work, able to display the drawing not only two dimensional but also three-dimensional image. However, in our time it is sometimes necessary to take a sheet of paper, attach it to the drawinging the Board and draw a regular standard nut.
How to perform the drawing of the nuts according to GOST
You will need
  • - a sheet of paper of format A4;
  • - drawing Board;
  • - drawing supplies (pencils, compass, eraser, etc.);
  • - access to the Internet.
Instruction
1
Via buttons or adhesive tape secure to the drawingBoard Noah a sheet of drawing paper format A4 (210x297 mm) narrow side up. Draw a frame the drawingand, stepping back from the edge of the sheet 20 mm from the left side and 5 mm on the other sides.
2
Find the GOST nutsthat you want to draw (for example, GOST 5915-70). It contains a drawing of the nut in two projections and a table size of standard nuts. The value of the diameter of the thread find the nut in the table, the drawing which you intend to perform. In the table, the diameter of the thread indicated by the letter d. Remove from the table all the values of the dimensions of the nut (m, d, s, e).
3
Select the scale drawing. It needs to be selected so that the image was clearly visible all the details of the drawingand, simultaneously, the sheet has sufficient space for dimensioning. As for the image of the nut are the two projections located adjacent to each other along the horizontal axis, determining to select the scale is the size of the sheet width (185 mm inside the frame). Select a scale such that the width of the two projections ( m + s) occupied 1/3 – 1/4 of the 185-ti mm.
4
Multiply the dimensions taken from the table, for the selected scale. The obtained values represent the dimensions in which the nut must be depicted in drawingE.
5
Swipe up on the sheet in the horizontal axis projections. She should defend from the top of the plate to approximately 1/3 of its length. Draw the vertical projection axis of the nutintersecting with the horizontal axis. The distance from the left edge to the first vertical axis and the distance between the first and second axis must be respectively about 50 and 80 mm. These values are given roughly, they can be different. Importantly, the ratio of used and available disk space on the drawinge looked harmoniously.
6
Set the compass size ?e (half the distance between opposite corners of the hexagon nut). From the center of the second projection draw a circle. Write in it an equilateral hexagon (contour nuts). Side of the hexagon should be equal to the Radus of the circle. Draw two more circles from the same centre – one continuous thick line (bore diameter), the second thin ? the circumference (diameter of thread). Erase the first circle, she played a supporting role and no longer will need.
7
Using the existing second projection and size taken from the table appropriate to the scale, draw the first projection of the nut, as a pattern use the drawing of GOST (in our case, GOST 5915-70). Your drawing should be identical to this drawing, differing from it only in size.
8
Apply to drawing all dimension line and select dimensions – again, in full accordance with the drawingout of GOST. In the free field below the projections in the form of numbered paragraphs state the requirements for the product in respect to its hardness, accuracy class, presence or absence of heat treatment, etc.
9
Draw a frame for the sheet format the drawingand fill it in. The shape and size of the frame, and also the procedure for its completion depend on what the organization intended this drawing (for educational institutions, manufacturing enterprises, research institutes, etc.). Different organizations may have their own forms and its own procedure for filling in the sheet.
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