Advice 1: How to identify a gerund

The participle (participium) translated from Latin means "tracing". It espregueira verb form that marks the feature of an object by the action. Together with a dependent word communion forms the turnover is, you want to be able to find in the sentence to avoid punctuation errors.
How to identify a gerund
The participle combines the characteristics of a verb and an adjective. Therefore, some linguists include the sacrament of the morphological category of adjectives. Legalnosti communion is manifested in the existence of categories of collateral, and time. With adjectives it brings the total value of the characteristic of the object, and change according to the gender, case and number.
The greatest difficulty causes the distinction between participles and adjectives. Both parts respond to the same questions "what?", "what?" and indicate the symptom of the subject. To determine that before you – participle or adjective – try to change the word turnover "the one who + verb". For example: "trailing – the one that slides", "lit – the one warm". If such a change was possible, before your communion. Adjectives change to such trafficking is impossible: "winter", "sleepy", "green".
If communion is the dependent word, together they form a involved in trafficking. For example: "Read the letter lay on the table". In this sentence, the participle "read" acts as a simple definition, it has no dependent words. This is the solitary communion. "Mom read the letter lay on the table". Here, "read by mommy" is involved in the turnover ofom: "read by whom? mom."
In the proposals involved in the turnover can stand before the modified word: "the Teacher checked the dictation written the day before". Here define the word "dictation" - "what?" - "written before" (involved in trafficking). It can also be placed after the defined words: "the Teacher checked the dictation written the day before".
Depending on before or after the defined costs involved in turnover, it either stands out in the letter with commas or not. For example: "the Road was in the marshes with pine forests". Define the word "wetlands" (from it is the question to communion: "of wetlands what? covered"). There is in the proposal and is involved in trafficking: "overgrown – those who shoots what? forest what? pine". It is designated after the word and comma stands out. But involved in the turnover of thes in front of the designated word, not isolated: "the Road went among the pine forest of the marshes".
The literary norm is the location of a participial phrase directly before or after the designated word ("singing in the forest birds" and "birds singing in the forest"). The separation of the participial phrase from the main in other words is a speech error ("birds drowned out the rustle of leaves singing in the forest" would be correct: "singing in the forest birds were drowned out by the rustle of leaves").
Useful advice
Regardless of the location of the single participle in the sentence with commas are not highlighted: "there were flowers wilted".

Advice 2: How to write the dictation without mistakes

One of the most important skills in the teaching of the native language – competent and correct presentation of ideas. This plays a big role in writing dictations without errors. How to achieve this goal, and to learn to understand all the subtleties of language?
How to write the dictation without mistakes
You will need
  • - Writing utensils;
  • - books;
  • dictionaries;
  • books.
You can instill at an early childhood love of writing. It will be very difficult to constantly develop it, if you were not initially taught to write correctly. Deal with letter is needed before entry to grade 1 and preparatory group. Learn penmanship and spelling the most simple words and expressions. Turn this whole process into an entertaining game.
Buy good textbooks. Of course, in the age of information many texts are already in electronic form. Even in the school paper books became less. But still, any student will be much more pleasant to hold in hands colorful Handbook and study it. Purchase informative books and magazines. You will not spoil the vision and will be able to comprehend the grammar of the native language in a relaxed atmosphere.
Train and develop attention and concentration. Often even a diligent student it is difficult to achieve absolute literacy. Write a dictation with a lot of mistakes, and not always is the problem of illiteracy. Sometimes kids are very difficult even to focus on the job - their attention all the time dissipated. You should develop the concentration with the help of special exercises. Find out about them to the appropriate resources in the network or the school psychologist. Perform these exercises at home.
Practice to write dictation correctly. And not necessarily to limit it to the curriculum. Work independently for 15-20 minutes during the weekend. Write under the dictation of the texts that you want to hear. Use first those topics that you are sincerely interested. Then take part in the debriefing. Remember those places that need to be tightened in the future.
Work hard and let the teacher praise you for the effort. It is no secret that positive self-esteem leads to improved results. For any student it is more important than ever! You should hear that are much more competent to write a dictation, and you satisfied all around. Let this be the impetus for further development. Gradually you will learn to write texts dictation at all without errors.

Advice 3: What is a participial

In oral speech we use a very simple design. In the letter, we may need more complex figures of speech, for example, involved in trafficking.What is a gerund different from participial and what rules he obeys?
What is a participial
A gerund always consists of a participle and its dependent words. Communion is a special verbal form with an adjective (adjective). Adjectival characteristics of the participle: gender, number, case, full or short form - they can change. Verbal signs of the sacrament: manage, view, the Deposit (divided into active and passive participles) and time. These symptoms are constant. Consider the examples:

Offender robbed a Bank, escaped prosecution of the police.

Define the word "criminal." "Robbed a Bank" is a gerund, where "robbed" is a valid sacrament, a "Bank" is a dependent word.

The amount of money stolen yesterday from the Bank exceeded $ 1,000,000.

Define the word "amount". "Stolen yesterday from the Bank" - a gerund, where "kidnapped" is an adjective, and "yesterday" and "from Bank" is the dependent word.
A gerund can stand before the modified word:

Tied up outside a shop dog barked loudly.

"Tied up outside a shop" is a gerund. In this case, it will not stand out with a comma.

If a gerund comes after the defined words:

A dog tied outside a shop, barked at a passerby.

The turnover will be allocated by commas on both sides.
In Russian language the sacrament came from old Slavic, so firmly taken root in the written word. Gerund is also a form of the verb preserved in the language since ancient times, but it has signs of dialect. To confuse the communion, answering the question "what?", with the adverbial participle, answering the question "how?" it is absolutely impossible, if you understand the rules above. By the way, "above" is also a gerund!
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