You will need

- - the range;
- pencil, pen, marker;
- - a sheet of paper;
- - protractor;
- - the mitre box;
- - knife, scissors, jigsaws and other cutting tools.

Instruction

1

If the surface of the material is quite extensive and allows you to make marks, draw a line slice with a ruler. Then draw a line perpendicular to this line, using

**the angle of**the parts or any object with smooth edges, for example, a sheet of paper or a book.2

Line mark on each side of the equal angle intervals, for example, 10 cm, Measure the distance between the received points and divide it in half. This point connect with the top angle. You got

**the angle**to 45º, now cut the material on the drawn lines using scissors, knife, jig saw or other tools.3

Select one of the lines of the cut, take the protractor and attach to the line. Locate the scale mark 45º and connect this point with the center of the protractor. According to the planned lines cut the material available tools.

4

Paper, film, foil or other easily flexible material cut in the following way: find or draw a straight

**angle**(for the sheet of paper that any of its corners). Fold the sheet so that adjacent sides match. Cut the paper along the fold line.5

If you need to cut the

**angle**of 45 degrees several times, for example, when fitting the plinth, make a template. To do this, take a thick cardboard, draw the square and cut it diagonally.6

In order to cut materials at an angle of 45 ° in large volumes, buy a mitre box, this tool can be easily found in any hardware store. Attach the baseboard or the inside rail so as to be located in space, and cut it with a knife, a jigsaw or other tool.

Note

Not always the corners are exactly 90º, often they can be acute or obtuse. In this case, if you have already cut the skirting or other material under the angle of 45°, glue it and apply the crack filler.

Useful advice

To the corners of the two parts, for example, skirting boards exactly coincided, first cut one at an angle of 45°, attach it to the repair place here and try the second part. Draw a cutting line with a pencil and cut the corner (even though it will differ from the specified ones, but the design will fit perfectly in the space).

# Advice 2: How to find the angle between the crossing straight lines

To determine the magnitude of the angle between the crossing straight lines, you need both a direct (or one of them) moved to a new position by parallel transfer to the intersection. You should then find the measure of the angle between the intersecting lines.

You will need

- Ruler, triangle, pencil, protractor.

Instruction

1

Modern technologies in various industries (construction, engineering, instrumentation, etc.) are based on the construction of three-dimensional (three-dimensional) models. The basis of such a construction is a three-dimensional design (in the school course the solution to spatial problems is considered in the section of geometry called solid geometry). Quite often in three-dimensional design required the solution of problems of quantification of the mutual arrangement of intersecting straights, for example, distances and angles between them.

2

Under crossed lines defined as straight lines which do not belong to the same plane. The angle between two straight lines that do not belong to the same plane, is equal to the value of the angle between two intersecting straight lines, respectively, parallel data skew lines.

3

Therefore, to determine the angle between two straight lines that do not belong to the same plane, it is necessary to arrange them parallel straight lines in the same plane, that is, to reduce the problem to finding the angle between two intersecting straight (viewed in plane geometry).

4

It is absolutely equitable are three variants of straight lines in space:

-a direct parallel to the first straight line, is conducted through any point of the second straight line;

-a direct parallel to the second straight line, is conducted through any point of the first straight;

-straight and parallel first and second straight, are conducted through arbitrary point of space.

-a direct parallel to the first straight line, is conducted through any point of the second straight line;

-a direct parallel to the second straight line, is conducted through any point of the first straight;

-straight and parallel first and second straight, are conducted through arbitrary point of space.

5

If two intersecting lines form two pairs of supplementary angles. The angle between two intersecting straight is considered the smaller of the adjacent angles, formed by the intersection of the straight lines (called adjacent angles whose sum is 180°). The measurement of the angle between intersecting straight leads to the solution of the problem of the magnitude of the angle between the crossed lines.

6

For example, the two belong to different planes a and b direct. On one of the lines, for example, choose a arbitrary point a, through which when using the ruler and a right triangle are holding direct b' such that b' || b. According to the theorem of parallel transport, the magnitude of angles in this type of spatial displacement is a constant. Thus, a video forms with parallel lines b and b' equal angles. Using the protractor measure the angle between intersecting straight a and b'.

Note

You should observe the accuracy of geometric constructions and measurement angle.

Useful advice

A better option is to build a direct parallel to one of the data direct, through any point of the second straight line.

# Advice 3: How to make a 45 degree angle

It is sufficient to take the usual school supplies – pencil and paper, a ruler, a protractor and a compass – and you can draw any geometric shape, whether square, oval, triangle,

**square**. However, there are cases where the drawing tools at hand at all or their number is limited, but even in this case, you can do the desired drawing.You will need

- - the range;
- pencil;
- paper;
- a pair of compasses;
- - protractor;
- - right triangles

Instruction

1

If there is nothing but sheet of paper and a pencil, then you can do even these facilities. To do this, very carefully roll the sheet of paper in four, with good smoothing down the folds. As a result, the dual bend will get a right angle which is 90°. Fold the corner in half again, and get the desired angle of 45°. The truth in this case will appear a small error in the loss of several degrees. For more accurate drawing draw a right angle with a pencil on a blank sheet of paper, carefully cut it out and fold in half – this will give an angle of 45°.

2

You can draw the angle using a rectangular tre

**gon**s, which varies with angles 90°, 45°, 45° and 90°, 60°, 30°. Take tre**gon**(with angles 90°, 45°, 45°) and draw on a sheet of paper at a sharp angle of 45°. If there is only tre**gon**with angles 90°, 60°, 30°, then on another sheet of paper draw a straight angle, cut it out, fold in half and draw the desired drawing. This will be the angle of 45°.3

The most accurate version of the construction in which a protractor is used. Draw on paper a line, mark on it a corner point, attach the protractor and mark a point 45° , and then connect them together.

4

Interestingly, even with a compass can also represent the angle at 45° . For this it is enough to have a picture angle of 90° (for example, using a rectangular tre

**gon**and or by folding paper squares). Then from the corner point of the compass, swipe a circle. At the intersection of the circle and the sides of a right angle mark the point. Now from each of the two points with the same solution of the compass make two more circles. In their point of intersection will be a point that you connect with a corner, which will get two angle of 45° .Useful advice

For the execution of more precise drawing, make sure the pencil was sharp. Line and triangles it is better to use hardwood.

# Advice 4: How to find the directional angle

Orienteering lines on the map is to define its direction relative to the geographical axis or the magnetic Meridian is taken as the initial direction. The initial selected direction to form a reference

**angle**, which is the orientation direction of lines. Backsight angle can be directional**angle**, the true (geographic) and magnetic azimuth or quadrant bearings: geographic, magnetic and directional.You will need

- - topographical map
- - protractor,
- - line
- pencil,
- calculator,
- compass.

Instruction

1

Directional angle is

**the angle**formed by the North direction of the Meridian axis (initial direction) and the direction line to the reference point. Measured directional**angle**in a clockwise direction and is measured in the range of 0-360 degrees.2

There are several ways to find the directional angle with a protractor, magnetic azimuth (using a compass or compass), geophysical method, gyroscopic, celestial, using hormogonia and for contour points of the map or aerial photography. Consider some of these ways.

3

Using transportirovke a straight line through the starting point and the reference point to the nearest vertical grid line coordinate on the map (horizontal axis). It is important that the distance from the origin to the point of intersection of a line drawn with the abscissa axis was not smaller than the radius of the protractor.

4

Align the protractor with the abscissa axis: the center of the protractor should be at the point of intersection of the vertical coordinate axis and the line of the chosen direction, and the zero line of the protractor - looking North.

5

Measure

**the angle**between the vertical line of the grid coordinates and held the line: the count from the x-axis (North direction) - clockwise.6

Using formulas, you can move from one reference angle to another, say from the magnetic or geographic azimuth to the directional angle.

7

Calculating the azimuth angle using a magnetic will simutaniously geographical azimuth. It is equal to the sum of the magnetic azimuth and declination of the magnetic needle (the data indicated on the schematic map of the location of meridians below the map). This amendment may be a "+" or "-".

8

Subtract from this value the geographical azimuth value of the Gaussian convergence of the meridians (the value specified in the schema location of meridians). The resulting number is the directional

**angle**direction.9

Calculate the azimuth of the selected luminaries (after long observation). Then calculate or determine directly using the nozzle on the compass azimuth oriented direction. After calculate by the formula directional

**angle**. This method of determining the value of directional angle is astronomical. It is the most accurate.Useful advice

If the result of computing the directional angle is less than zero (negative), to it added 360 degrees; if the angle is greater than limit (360 degrees, subtract 360 degrees.

If necessary, transfer the azimuth angle to the next line direction through the rotation angle needed to the existing directional corner of the line direction to add the difference (left turn) or deduct (right turn) angle and rotate 180 degrees.

If necessary, transfer the azimuth angle to the next line direction through the rotation angle needed to the existing directional corner of the line direction to add the difference (left turn) or deduct (right turn) angle and rotate 180 degrees.

# Advice 5: How to cut the pipe at an angle

When installing pipes for water supply, Sewerage or for other purposes, it is often necessary to cut

**the pipe**under**an angle**. While the slightest mistake in building the cutting line will lead to the violation of the line of welding and, consequently, to incorrect installation. To do the job properly, use the following tools.You will need

- - a sheet of paper;
- - basin with water;
- - Mel;
- - masking tape;
- - Cerno;
- the computer program for the compilation of the scan of the pipe;
- printer;
- - scissors;
- - Scotch;
- lathe;
- - flame equipment;
- - welding machine;
- - hacksaw;
- the pipe cutter;
- - Bulgarian.

Instruction

1

If necessary, cut the pipe at an angle of 45, take a square sheet of paper, fold it diagonally and wrap it in the pipe so that the ends of the diagonals was found. The short side will indicate the line of cut at 45⁰, draw this line with chalk or procardia Kern.

2

If the pipe is small, and you need to get a certain angle, take a basin with water and dip the pipe at the desired slope. Slope calculate in advance. The border of wet and dry metal will show you the line of the cut, draw around it with chalk or protsarapat a sharp object.

3

To determine the line of the cut pipe, use a narrow masking tape. This method is especially useful when the tube is long, and cutting it should be in the middle. Stick the tape to the desired angle, it can easily be moved and removed after cutting. To be sure that the tape went smoothly, wrap the pipe 2 or 3 times.

4

To determine the exact angle of the cut, try using the drafting program scans the pipes or in the usual program of preparation of drawings, for example, in Corel Draw. To do this, download the program and draw the pattern, putting the circumference (diameter multiplied by PI) and the desired angle. If you do not have this program, make the scan yourself using OST 38-43-81.

5

When the drawing is ready, print it on your printer (if necessary on several sheets), cut out, glue and tape. Then attach the pipe and draw around it with chalk or draw a cone.

6

Marking the cut line, saw him on the tube. If possible, use lathe, it is possible to obtain a sufficiently smooth edge. To cut the pipe exactly flame equipment or conventional welding, it is necessary to be very experienced welder.

Useful advice

For cutting large amount of pipes buy pipe cutter or take the grinder. In an extreme case, try to cut the pipe manually with a regular hacksaw.