Advice 1: How to determine the debit and credit

Organizations that carry out their activity on the territory of the Russian Federation, must keep accounting records. As a rule, all economic transactions are recorded using double-entry that contains a debit and credit.
How to determine the debit and credit
To determine where the debit and the credit, look for a business transaction. As a rule, the debit reflects the amount that needs you, and the loan is what you need. For example, you work with any contractors. The amount that you must pay for the goods, will be reflected in the loanthe my balance. In that case, if customers owe you, the debt will be taken into account on the debitE.
If you see a log of business transactions please note that all transactions are registered twice, that is will be the name of the movement, and then two columns. To determine which one is debitand which is creditenough to know that the debit is always recorded on the left side and credit on the right.
To determine the debit and credit, you should know that if the account is active or active-passive, increase debitof the lateral balance leads to an increase of the assets of the organization. While the increase in creditand in these accounts leads to a decrease in the value of the property.
In that case, if the account is passive, the increase in the debitbalance of ovogo leads to a decrease in sources of the organization. Conversely, if increased creditmarketing balance, it means an increase in sources of the organization.
If you want to register the transaction in the General Ledger, you must first formulate the transaction, that is to break the operation in the debit and credit. Carefully consider the essence of the operation. For example, you sold the item to buyer's address. Formed receivables (that is, you are), it is necessary to reflect on the debitthe my account as a credite reflected your debt. So, the debitfrom the account 62 "Settlements with buyers". For the loanu need also to reflect that operation, otherwise the balance will not go. Determine what accounts are gone. From shows that was to sell, so a loane specify the account 90 "Sales".

Advice 2: How to determine the active-passive account

Active-passive account is an accountused in accounting, which simultaneously affect the assets or the company assets and liabilities, sources of its formation. Active-passive account has characteristics of both active, and passive the accounta, ie the balance will be reflected on the debit and the credit.
How to determine the active-passive account
On the active-passive accountOh considered indicators that can take positive or negative value. For example, at the expense ofe 99 "Profits and losses" reflects the indicator of financial result of the current period. It can take a positive value, and then there is a profit, and negative, in which we talk about the loss.
When defining active-passive accountand remember that they he may have unilateral balance (either debit or credit) and bilateral (debit and credit). Account 99 is the expense of one-way balance. When the excess of income over expenditure, i.e. the profit, the balance is reflected on the loan and refers to the liabilities side of the balance because profit is a source of assets. Conversely, in the presence of losses of balance is reflected in the debit account.
To active-passive accountof am include the expense of 60 "RAaccounts with suppliers and contractors", 62 "RAaccounts with buyers and customers", 71 "RAaccounts with accountable persons", 75 "RAaccounts with the founders," 76 "RAaccounts with different debtors and creditors", etc.
The General scheme of operations in an active-passive accountAh can be represented as follows. On the opening balance on the debit reflects the existence of accounts receivable on the accounting period beginning respectively on the loan – creditor. Turnover on the debit represents an increase of receivables and decrease in payables and, to the contrary, the credit reflects the increase in accounts payable and decrease in receivables.
For example, at the expense ofe 60 firm takes into account the RAaccounts with two counterparties. While one of the suppliers made advance payments in the amount of 100 thousand rubles., and the second needs 30 thousand rubles. Thus, the debit accountand will reflected the advance (accounts receivable), credit debt (accounts payable). At the same time remains in an active-passive accountof am are shown in expanded form, as rolled-up amounts can lead to inaccurate presentation of financial statements.
The main active-passive accounts are: 71 "Calculations with accountable persons"; 75 "Calculations with founders"; 76 "Calculations with different debtors and creditors"; of 99 "Profits and losses". Active-passive account can be located both in assets and in liabilities.
Useful advice
Regarding account 99, which were previously regarded as passive, you must say the following: all businesses operating with the main objective of making a profit, but if for some reason they have a loss, in this case the score becomes 99 active-passive. Consider the example of how to keep records of account 99 "Profits and losses".

Advice 3: What is the debit and credit

Debit and credit are terms used in accounting. Debit is the left side of the account, derived from the Latin word – "should." Right side of account is called a loan and comes from the Latin "to trust".
What is the debit and credit
Such a designation of the parties of the account historically. They appeared on the stage of development when the entity's accounting was in the reflection of the relationship between the supplier and the debtor, the borrower and the banker.

Currently, these terms have lost their literal meaning. Debit refers to property or property rights of the enterprise, depending on the account facts.

With the term "debit" is the concept of "debit turnover, which includes transactions for a certain period of time, leading to increase in property of the organization or reduction of the source of their formation. The condition of the property, accounted for a score at a particular point in time is called a debit balance.

Credit – opposite side of the accounts required to reflect liabilities (sources of formation of property) of the enterprise. Consequently, credit turnover is a business transaction that lead to an increase in its obligations (liabilities) or decrease in assets.

Thus, business transactions recorded in the account cause increase or decrease of the group of funds for which it is open. And each side of the account intended to separately reflect the increase or decrease amounts. The reflection of economic operations in active accounts (property accounts) debit turnover indicates an increase in specified amounts on it. Debit turnover on the passive accounts (accounts of the organization's liabilities), on the contrary, indicates their reduction. Credit turnover on active accounts indicates a decrease in the disc amounts, and on passive – increase.

The accounts of the two parties due to the need of separate accounting of operations on it (increase and decrease), as well as the convenience of records on the account.
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