The types of harmful factors
The physical factors are high temperature (for example, the profession of the treater, hardening of metal parts and products), humidity (washing and Laundry), the velocity of air (work in open areas with strong flow), thermal (infrared) radiation (bakery).
In dunnow categroy is possible to classify the electromagnetic field (x-ray, the mobile station) and ionizing radiation (railway facilities). Also in this list - industrial noise, ultrasound (used in radiography of castings, welds, plastics, grinding of solids in liquids, for cleaning and degreasing parts, homogenization of milk, cutting, welding, metal, crushing, drilling brittle materials, acceleration of fermentation in the manufacture of wine), infrasound (fans, compressors, diesel engines, locomotives, turbines, jet engines), vibration (working with a nail gun — on the road or in mining), spray (painting work — the impact of aerosols, acetone, paints).
In this category of lighting conditions: the absence or lack of lighting in the workplace, bestcost blinding, pulsating light or excessive light (for example, welding).
The chemical factors include substances and mixtures, including some biological substances: antibiotics, vitamins, hormones, enzymes, protein drugs. Example chemical factors can be found in electroplating production: here, the employees engaged in the coating of metal products — dip galvanizing, oxidation, anodizing, chrome plating.
Biological factors — organisms: producers, living cells and spores in the bacterial preparations, as well as interaction with pathogens, which can bring infectious diseases (working in laboratories).
Factors of the labor process — the severity and intensity of work (e.g. carrying heavy loads).
There are professions in which employees are exposed to several harmful factors. These include, for example, blacksmithing: there is the temperature factor (heat), and noise (noise of hammers or stamps).
Benefits for employees of hazardous production
According to the labour legislation of the Russian Federation the employee is engaged in harmful, hazardous or heavy work is entitled to additional allowances, privileged pension. Similar to the production of shorter working day and total working time per week shall not exceed 36 hours.
For the protection of workers in hazardous work provides for the mandatory preliminary and periodic medical examinations, as well as the issuance of special clothing and individual protection means. These include washing and neutralizing means, milk, medicinal and prophylactic nourishment. However, they can be replaced by compensatory payments.