Gynecological tests: smear flora and seeding of bacteria
The most popular analysis in gynecological smear on the flora or bacterioscopy. A swab is taken from three areas: the vagina, the cervix, the external opening of the urethra using a disposable spatula (a plastic wand with extended end). Material from each area is placed on a separate glass slide and then in the laboratory and examined under a microscope. The study determined the presence of pathogens (enterobacteria, diphtheroid, mycelium, Staphylococcus, Trichomonas, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and others).
The quality and result of the analysis is dependent on the correct sampling of material and skill of the technician.
Bacteriological examination may carry out the method of sowing. In this case, the growing bacteria on nutrient media. This method is much more efficient, thanks to him, the pathogen can be detected even at low concentrations. The method allows to count the number of agents to determine their sensitivity to antibiotics. Analysis for bacteriological examination are taken from the cervical canal with a special sterile swab. In the laboratory produce seeding of bacteria for this touch pad of nutrient medium (agar-agar or gelatin).
Why do DNA screening
The doctor may prescribe DNA-diagnostics, polymerase chain reactions (PCR). In this method, the research material reveals the DNA of the pathogen, which is all the information about the cell. DNA diagnostics can detect the infection, not detectable in smears (genital herpes, chlamydia, urea and mycoplasmosis). Material for DNA-diagnostics is taken from the cervical canal with a sterile disposable brush. Before taking the analysis a cotton swab make sure to remove the secretions and mucus. Despite the effectiveness of this method cannot be used to determine the quality of treatment.
It is undesirable to use a PCR method for diagnostics of gardnerellosis.
Serological method of diagnosis
In order to distinguish acute disease from an exacerbation of chronic infection, produce an additional method of diagnosis is detection of antibodies in the blood (or serological method). Often this analysis is prescribed to pregnant women to determine the probability of infecting the child upon detection of the pathogen by the method of DNA diagnostics. Also women are encouraged to donate blood for this analysis when planning a pregnancy.
For the unborn child, the most dangerous primary infection. During primary infection the body produces antibodies – immunoglobulins M. Their presence in the blood indicates the presence of a hidden disease that requires treatment. If the detected immunoglobulin G, then the body has already developed immunity against infections, treatment in this case is not required. The simultaneous presence in the blood of both types of antibodies indicates chronic infection, while assigned therapy is needed.
Advice 2 : How to pass a swab from the throat
A smear from the pharynx used for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in adults and children. This method of research allows to identify the causative agent and to determine the latent carriers of pathogenic microorganisms.
A smear from the pharynx is indicated for suspected diphtheria, pertussis, angina, and also to identify carriers of Staphylococcus aureus. With this analysis it is possible to detect the Streptococcus, Bacillus diphtheria, pneumococci, yeast-like fungi and some other pathogens.
Before the fence material is not within 2 hours of taking food, drugs, drink and brush your teeth. Better to take the test in the morning on an empty stomach. It is necessary to clean the nasal passages from accumulations of mucus. Failure to comply with prior training before taking a smear from the pharynx to the microflora can cause inaccurate test results.
Smear from throat taken in the following manner: the patient widely opens his mouth, the medic gently presses spatula, the back of the tongue, then a sterile swab holding fast the mucosa of the tonsils, the back wall of the Palatine arches and pharynx. Then a cotton swab placed in a sterile vial and sent to a bacteriological laboratory.
After taking a smear from the pharynx in the bacteriological laboratory is carried out subsequent seeding content on a special nutrient medium for growth of bacteria. Then spend the identification of pathogens was found using the microscope, determine their sensitivity to antibiotics. The result of the analysis allows the doctor to determine further tactics of treatment.
Normal part of the microflora of the pharynx is composed of epidermal Staphylococcus aureus, viridans strep, small amount of fungus Candida and nebulisator pneumococci and Neisseria. When analyzing smears for microflora of the pharynx can be identified the following pathogens: pertussis fungi Candida albicans, pathogens of diphtheria (Bacillus Leffler), β-hemolytic Streptococcus group A.
Streptococcus, cause a significant number of diseases belong to the group A (pyogenic). Such throat infections are quite common. Streptococcal sore throat is mild, asymptomatic, and severe with increasing temperature. Smear from pharynx on eosinophils take to confirm or exclude the allergic nature of the disease. Eosinophils are white blood cells that participate in allergic reactions. Analysis of the fungi doing to identify agranulocytosis, bronchial asthma with prevailing allergic component.