Parkinson's disease: General information
Depending on the reasons for the development of the disease there are primary (idiopathic) and secondary (symptomatic) parkinsonism. Primary parkinsonism, constituting 75-80% of all cases the disease is a Parkinson's disease. The predisposition to this disease may be inherited. Secondary parkinsonism or Parkinson's syndrome, develops on the background of various diseases and pathological conditions .
Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative diseases. From this disease suffer 1 out of 100 people aged 60 years and older. Most often Parkinson's disease affects older people who are more than 55 years. Approximately 10% of all cases are young people who are less than 40 years. Sometimes Parkinson's disease occurs in children and adolescents, in this case, the disease is called juvenile parkinsonism of hunt.
Parkinson's disease: causes
The exact cause of this disease is not fully understood. Physicians believe that the emergence and progression of Parkinson's disease can contribute to 3 main factors. First of all, this age-related changes and genetic predisposition (heredity), but the disease can develop under the influence of adverse environmental conditions.
There are also several other reasons that can lead to Parkinson's disease :
- traumatic brain injury;
- atherosclerosis of brain vessels;
- viral infection;
- carried encephalitis;
- brain tumor;
- long reception of some medicinal drugs (e.g., neuroleptics), etc.
Parkinson's disease: signs and symptoms
Among the symptoms of Parkinson's disease are called:
- tremor (involuntary shaking of extremities);
- slow motion;
- immobility of the arms when walking;
- shuffling gait;
- difficulty or absence of facial activity;
- loss of coordination;
- specific bent position;
- increased muscle stiffness;
- a trembling voice, soft speech, mumbling;
- difficulty swallowing;
- brief inability to move ("freezing");
- chronic depression;
- lack of energy and a sense of desolation;
- dysfunction of the bladder.
The symptoms of Parkinson's disease grow slowly, but because in the initial stage of the disease they may go unnoticed. At the initial stage of the disease, the patient noted a slight tremor of one hand. Later it goes to the second hand, and eventually starts trembling of the lower extremities.
Shaking hands is sometimes like rolling the invisible pills, coins or marbles.
The more time passes since the onset of the disease, the more there is new symptoms. Appears the awkwardness and slowness of movement, disturbances of coordination. Rigidity of the muscles of the lower extremities causing gait disturbance and leads to difficulty performing the most ordinary actions. Often there is rigidity of the neck muscles, restricting some movement.
The patient's speech becoming monotonous, quiet, without modulation, with a tendency to decay at the end of the phrase. Severe form of the disease is characterized by a loss of balance. In the later stages of the disease manifest violation of swallowing food and saliva. A small percentage of patients suffering from dementia, which indicate the inability to focus and slow thinking. In the later stages the patient may come complete immobility of the body.
Parkinson's disease: diagnosis and treatment
In Parkinson's disease to start treatment as early as possible, because at the first symptoms need to see a doctor-a neurologist. To diagnose this disease the person is sent to electromyography to determine the cause of tremor, as well as to exclude muscular diseases. For the diagnosis of disorders of brain activity is electroencephalography.
The most important thing in the treatment of Parkinson's syndrome is the use of drugs, under the influence of which is terminated by the death of nerve cells called neurons. Usually the treatment begin with the appointment of drugs that contain dopamine, providing activity of neurons in the brain. These drugs are designed to compensate for the deficiency in production the body's own dopamine.
Usually the patient takes these drugs throughout their life. However, some patients do not experience improvement from the medication, so they are treated with neurosurgical methods. Although after surgery, full recovery does not occur, the patients are unable to adapt to normal life. To new methods of treatment of this disease is the use of stem cells, which are then transformed into neurons. By results of the conducted laboratory experiments found that this method helps to reduce the symptoms of this disease up to 75%.
In the treatment of Parkinson's disease used folk remedies. For the stimulation of the brain is useful to drink fresh juice of leaves of spinach, which should be consumed 2 times a day before eating. It is believed that the symptoms of this disease can reduce and propolis. It should chew 1 per day. Good decoction of 1 part of chamomile flowers, 1 part sage 2 parts Valerian root.
Parkinson's disease: course and prognosis
To date, the Parkinson's disease is considered incurable. Not yet created a drug that can restore the structure of the brain. Life expectancy with this disease depends on the stage that had started treatment. However, patients rarely live 10 years after the start of treatment.
Treatment in the early stages of the disease can significantly reduce the severity of symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
Parkinson's disease is a slowly but steadily progressive disease. Over time, the symptoms of patients deteriorates, gradually leading to disability of patients. With the exception of some forms of disease, which are caused by drug intoxication. In this scenario, when the withdrawal of drugs may improve the condition.
Prevention of Parkinson's disease
Smokers and lovers of coffee and kolestiramin drinks almost not affected by Parkinson's disease. The mechanisms of such phenomena are not completely understood. Real prevention of Parkinson's disease does not exist. You should consider the factors that may lead to the development of this disease. For example, to trigger the occurrence of this disease can the use of toxic substances and excessive intake of drugs, e.g., neuroleptics. Also to Parkinson's disease can cause traumatic brain injury.
To reduce the risk of Parkinson's disease allows you to maintain an active and healthy lifestyle, with the exception of the impact on the organism to negative environmental factors, timely treatment of infectious diseases, permanent mental and physical activity.