For the lakes there are four main methods: mechanical, biological, chemical and purification using ultraviolet radiation.
Mechanical cleaning involves the collection of garbage from water surface with nets or special devices such as nets. Mechanical cleansing of large reservoirs is also possible when using small vessels and work divers. The last time the water began to actively connect and divers.
Purification is carried out in several stages. First, use machinery, excavators, digging drainage ditches and an additional reservoir and pull water from the lake. Then clean the bottom, remove debris, silt, bottom sediments, clear lake shores from excessive vegetation, clear springs. The purified water is carried out using mechanical filtration. This is the most cheap and effective way to purify water from small organics and algae.
Artificial reservoirs, lakes on private land, the owners cleaned it themselves. You can use a regular net, and for deeper cleaning - "underwater vacuum cleaner". The device acts as a conventional vacuum cleaner, sucking up the dirty water with ground silt, algae, organic matter. Various nozzles such mechanisms help to clean the most intricate reliefs in the bottom of artificial reservoirs. All the absorbed waste is collected in a separate reservoir, which must be clean when filled.
In addition to mechanical cleaning can also be done with biological treatment of the lake using bio-filters filled with a porous material conducive to the growth of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria that feed on organic matter retained in these filters.
Chemical cleaning is performed by adding to the water chemicals to restore the chemical composition of water and dissolved oxygen. This water purification can be done only by professionals because it requires precise calculations.
Purification by ultraviolet light is to dive into the lake of lamps with UV light (a wavelength of 180-300 nm). Ultraviolet radiation affects the DNA of small algae and micro-organisms, bacteria and kills them. All devices required for cleaning , are commercially available in specialized stores and organizations.
Advice 2: How to purify water from nitrates
Recently often speak about the widespread distribution of nitrates (salts of nitric acid) and their negative impact on human health. Oddly enough, a large amount of salts contained in the water, so it must be cleaned.
One of the "suppliers" of nitrates in the human body is water, in which they find themselves, along with household and industrial wastes, and agricultural fields, generously sprinkled with sotoodehnia fertilizers. Whereby a nitric acid salt in large quantities is concentrated in well water, in small wells, in rivers and lakes. That's why using this life-giving water from underground sources, you need to check it for nitrates, and when elevated levels are required to remove.
Use technical tools. Today, the common method of water purification from nitrates through special filters anionic ion-exchange materials and with the help of reverse osmosis. The latter method is the most reliable: the pressure the water is coming to a semipermeable membrane, which retains the nitrates and other harmful elements, and "gives" thirsty for clean water. Using reverse osmosis filtered water, can remove up to 96% of impurities (depending on the device design and membrane), even if the composition of waste water varies considerably.
In some cases the water is purified using ion-exchange resins. The basis of this method lies in the process of replacement of the anion resin (chloride ion) nitrate ion. But it has its own peculiarities: the capacity of the resin is limited to a certain amount of anions, which she is able to accept to ensure the desired degree of water purification. Once the resin is fully "saturated", the process of removing impurities practically stops. And sometimes, when depletion of the resource filter, can occur even reset of nitrates in the already purified water. Therefore, this method of removing salts of nitric acid are in private homes is not effective, because it is difficult to provide constant control over quality of cleaning.
Excessive content of these salts in the human body is able to provoke methemoglobinemia, i.e., the appearance in the blood is too high (greater than 1%) amounts of methemoglobin, resulting in comes oxygen starvation of tissues, and the patient's General condition deteriorates. If the presence of the substance in the body reaches a level of 20-50%, the person has shortness of breath, tachycardia, it may even lose consciousness, and when exceeding this threshold (50%) death occurs. Particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of nitrates small children that have regenerating enzyme system is not yet formed.
Advice 3: How to rent a lake
Rental of a lake, pond or reservoir occurs, as a rule, for the purpose of fish farming or use of any entertainment center. According to the land code to rent as private property is only permitted reservoirs of closed type, the area of which does not exceed 3 ha. So if you have an overwhelming desire to rent a pond, it can be done only directly from the person who owns the land of the water Fund. This can be either state or local governments, or the sublease of any fish farms.
You will need
- - lease
- - license, for example, in fish farming
To obtain the right to use water resources, take care of licenses. To obtain a license is quite simple. After getting it, you will be responsible for the full condition of the reservoir. Your responsibilities will include cleaning, land reclamation, colonization by fish, and everything else. To do this, think in advance of how many people you need to hire to care for the rented pond.
For rent lake you can act in two ways. The first, is considered the most difficult as will have to cooperate with such a complex structure as a state. Rent from a normal state pond. Bring it into full order, that is clean to the extent possible, to blend, wall. And possess legally. But, as the experience of entrepreneurs already had experience directly with the state, there is no guarantee that after you bring the rented pond in proper form, the state will not take him away from you. That is why most seasoned entrepreneurs would advise you to use the second method of rent of the lake.
Find a suitable fishing industry and conclude with them the lease of some of the prepared pond for several years. Get permission from local authorities to use the lake, collect all the documents in the organs of a rybinspektion. After that, contact the Institute of fisheries for special use of water. These documents will stipulate what types of fish you can breed in your pond, the quantity, forage base. After completing all of these documents will be made an act authorizing the fish catch. When preparing the document required by the inspector.
The minimum period for which you will be allowed to enter into a lease - 5 years, and the maximum can be up to 20 years.