Advice 1: How to make trees in the layout

When you make an architectural model or a historical reconstruction on a smaller scale, you can not do without a different kind of vegetation, animating the landscape and the most approximating to reality. If you still don't know how to do trees in the layout, don't worry – armed with imagination and improvised materials you can make a plausible thumbnails.
How to make trees in the layout
You will need
  • - small branches of trees are characterised by extensive forms,
  • - hobby knife
  • paint spray green of several shades,
  • - a hard brush for glue
  • - foam
  • - grinder
  • - PVA glue,
  • - dry moss,
  • - manual collet mini drills,
  • - adhesive instant commit,
  • - nitrocellulose lacquer in aerosol packages
  • nail art strong hold.
Instruction
1
Go to the woods or the nearest Park, find a dry branches of trees with a length of 30-20 cm or less, depending on what will be the scale of the layout. Choose branches, similar in its form on the trunk and branches of a tree, you can pick up a small well-branched twigs, which can then be glued to the main trunk copy. Find a thick, beautiful moss, it will need to simulate branches and foliage. Came home, put his "prey" to dry. For this lay newspaper to the window sill. Moss disassemble into separate "branches" and also dry.
2
Trim the twigs with a utility knife, give them the desired shape and length. The upper tips of the branches point. If necessary, paint the trunk of the tree is gray-brown paint, in color resembling the bark of natural wood. With manual collet of minerali drill in the right places and holes in them instant glue to glue the small branches that form the crown. Cover the "trunk" and branches of varnish and hang over the base of the trunk to dry.
3
Thread a piece of foam through a meat grinder several times. Received a small crumb divide into two or three parts and paint them green with spray paint of several colors, it will be the leaves.
4
Paint the branches of moss green spray paint, coat the green part with white glue and sprinkle on them the foam coating the foliage. Allow to dry. Then on the places where the foam did not stick, put some glue and sprinkle them again. Dry.
5
Assemble billet trunk, crown and branches of the tree into a single structure. Attach the branches with glue instantaneous fixing from top to bottom of the barrel. Below the branches is well kept, you can first drill a drill a small hole at an angle to the axis of the trunk and branches, this will allow you to give your vegetation a natural appearance. In these holes then put instant glue and secure it in this thread. Finished wood cover with nitrocellulose lacquer which is sprayed from an aerosol can.

Advice 2: How to make the layout of the Park

The ability to make models out of paper and other scrap materials can be useful not only to the architect-the designer. It is important for students because, in accordance with the new standards, students should develop the ability to see objects in perspective. Make the layout of the Park with their hands on any, it requires available materials and a little imagination.
How to make the layout of the Park
You will need
  • - dry twigs, moss, cones;
  • - colored paper for appliqués, plain and velvet;
  • - thick white paper or cardboard;
  • - tracing;
  • - brushes for glue;
  • - PVA glue;
  • - sheet of cardboard;
  • - foam;
  • - the range;
  • a pair of compasses;
  • - pencil;
  • - scissors;
  • - millet;
  • - paint-spray green;
  • - clay.
Instruction
1
As a prototype you can take the really existing in your city Park. In this case, you'll need to find or order his plan. Using your imagination and ideas about the ideal area of recreation for the residents, you can make the project of the Park, embodying it on the layout.
2
Go to the forest or to the Park, collect dry branches, which in their form resemble the trunks and branches of miniature trees. Find and assemble the pieces of moss, a small, half-open pine or spruce cones. Spread on the sill of the paper and lay everything out to dry.
3
On a piece of cardboard raschertite Park lanes, lawns, flowerbeds. If you are designing a Park, mark the contour of a small river. Design Central Avenue and a small Playground, which will then put a miniature monument or to place the fountain.
4
A sheet of tracing paper put on the cardboard and copy the project, drag the contours of vegetation, and the river. Cut out these objects from the tracings on the circuit. According to this "pattern" of opaque blue paper or foil cut the surface of the river, and from green velvet paper – lawns. The texture of this paper is to simulate grass and a brilliant blue or blue foil – water surface.
5
Glue cut paper the river and the lawns on a cardboard base on their pencil outlines. To the surface of wet glue paper has not warped after drying, press pasted on cardboard paper some goods, for example, stacks of heavy books. Leave to dry for a few hours.
6
Spread adhesive designed sidewalks, alleys and a Playground. Sprinkle the surface of the tracks, millet and flatten it to the grains lying close to each other in a single layer. If you want to simulate paving tiles, millet, when the way is dry, you can paint in gray or brown color with a brush and watercolor.
7
Scroll a couple of times a small piece of foam through a meat grinder, the pieces cover the green paint from the sprayer and allow them to dry well. Of twigs with a sharp pair of scissors form the trunks and branches of trees. Pieces of moss cover the glue with a brush and sprinkle green foam chips. You get branches and foliage. Glue them to the blanks of the trees. The generated trees put on a cardboard base, fasten the trunks with clay.
8
Cones green paint from a paint sprayer, dry them and glue the base down to the lawns, on the layout they will represent the arborvitae bushes. From colored in the same way the remnants of the moss form the bushes of vegetation and also glue them in different places of the layout.
9
Of heavy paper and cardboard better, do the bench – cut of the lateral surface, cut slits for the seat and backrest, insert the rectangular pieces of cardboard - they are the backs and seats. Make a paper a couple of bridges across the river. From cocktail straws and plastic beads can make the lights and put in the Park the figures of people walking around.

Advice 3: How to make trees in the layout

The art of diorama military modeling and recreating a smaller scale picture of the fighting, well thought-out down to the last detail – is an exciting, complex and expensive Hobbies, which, however, creates spectacular paintings, admired as the owner and Creator, and other people. In the diorama to match reality not only important figures of soldiers and military equipment, but also environment – forest, field, relief, river or waterfall, and of course, trees and shrubs. How do the trees in the layouts, you'll learn from our article.
How to make trees in the layout
Instruction
1
To manufacture their own hands the layout of the birches in the scale 72 prepare some tools: hobby knife, flat stiff brush, a thin spatula and mini hand drill.
2
You will also need masking tape, superglue, putty for tiles, birch branch small size, dried moss, green powder, resembling the leaves of the tree (it can be made from crushed coloured paper or a tea infuser), black and white paint for models, the swamp green paint and matte varnish.
3
Sharpen a knife the tip of birch twigs. Wrap a twig with masking tape in several layers. The Foundation of the future trunk wrap more layers of tape to make the thickening.
4
Grout for tiles, diluted in a white paint, a twig handle wrapped with tape, using trowel or brush. The grout must be diluted evenly to the texture of the trunk did not spoil the lumps. Wait until the surface is dry to the future of birch.
5
Dip in black paint, a thin brush and apply black spots on the trunk of a birch. Greenish paint, spread and lightly color the base of the tree.
6
As birch branches, use the sprigs of moss to be painted with black paint. The most branched part of the branch paint and then sprinkle with a mixture simulating the fine leaves of the tree.
7
Prepare in this way a set of twigs. For installation manual mini-drill to drill the barrel holes under the branches, directing the drill at an angle from top to bottom. The upper branch are, in contrast to the lower and middle, fastened perpendicularly to the trunk.
8
The tip prepared by the branches drip a little glue and place it in the prepared hole. Do the same with the rest of the branches, holding each of the fingers in the desired position until the glue dries.
9
Thus, you will have the realistic birch in scale 72. Based on this method, you will be able to make any deciduous tree.

Advice 4: How to make the layout of the newspaper

Their periodical today have many educational institutions and public organizations. The use of computer programs makes publishing simple and accessible even to a layman. One of the main stages of the publishing activities is the creation of the layout of the newspaper. From the thoroughness of this work will depend on the appearance and attractiveness of the publication.
How to make the layout of the newspaper
Instruction
1
Use to create the layout of the newspaper computer Microsoft Publisher. Install the software on computer and run it. The user need the ability to understand the application menu, knowledge of working with fonts and colors.
2
Define the format of the future of the newspaper. To make the publication of solidity use the A3. However, if you do not have a printer of this size, use the A4 format.
3
Consider in advance the name of the newspaper, its logo and slogan. Such elements will give the publication greater weight and solidity. Charge the development of graphic experienced designer.
4
Open Microsoft Publisher and click "Blank publication." Right in the window layouts, select "Clean sheet". Adjust the page orientation and format. Install field. The top and bottom fields leave as is, an external set size of 2 cm, internal – 1.5 cm.
5
Assign by guides grids column or columns. For a sheet of A4, you will need five columns. For the larger format of the newspaper , select the number of columns empirically.
6
Create text blocks into columns using the text tool located on the left on the toolbar.
7
Open the dialog insert pages by selecting the menu items "Insert" and "Page". Set the desired number of new pages, for example, three or four.
8
Slide the blocks to achieve their correct position relative to the guides. To do this, select the unit by pressing ”Shift” and arrow keys to control the cursor. Move the blocks when the cursor is a four-sided arrow.
9
Enter the command "View" - "Two page view" for the layout. The internal pages of a future newspaper will be seen as a complete reversal. The basis of the layout of the newspaper ready.

Advice 5: Wood varnish for exterior use – the beauty of the material under reliable protection

Working with wood, craftsmen strive to preserve its texture. This is possible using a tool like varnish. Coatings, wood made on a different basis, so their properties as the drying period varies.
Wood, lacquered, longer retains its quality
Lucky for the tree of good that does not hide, but rather emphasize it. But this is typical only for transparent or very light compositions, colored give the tree shade. Varnishes are made of water, alcohol, polyester, acrylic, cellulosic, polyurethane, oil-based.


Some wood varnish to choose?




Varnishes for wood, water-based are odnokomnatnaya. This is the most dolgosrochnuyu compositions among all of these types of coatings for wood. They can be diluted with water, easy to apply, suitable for all types of work.


Varnishes based on polyurethane are inexpensive and dry quickly. They are both one - and two-component. Some of them require precoating of the surface. These compositions diluted with solvents, so they have quite a pungent smell. Mainly used in furniture manufacturing. Among the shortcomings of these tools of wood processing include the availability of harmful substances.


The nitro lacquer is made on the basis of cellulose. This is perhaps the most popular type of varnish, the reason for that – short drying time and low cost. But these compositions have significant disadvantages: low resistance to abrasion and UV radiation and possible delamination.
Acrylic varnishes are more expensive than their counterparts, but are often used in furniture manufacturing because of its excellent light fastness, durability, high-quality gloss. These compounds a very long time to dry, that does not prevent them to be the most popular among those who are passionate about decoupage.


Varnishes based on polyester are used quite rarely because of the complexity of application and high toxicity. They are sprayed in aerosol form, and require a special tool. These compounds are used in the manufacture of musical instruments, as they are able to create a fairly thick layer of the coating.


What a lucky tree suitable for outdoor use?




For external works use cold-resistant, light-resistant, moisture-resistant coating. Only such coatings can reliably protect the wood from rain, wind and sunlight. You cannot apply for wood which is on the street, the compositions forming the non-elastic film. These include the nitro lacquer. In addition, the varnish for exterior use should contain anti-bacterial additives that protect wood from insects and prevent rot.


For outdoor work you can use varnish on acrylic, oil, water-based. Most worthy among these coatings consider high strength yacht varnish. The most popular formulations for exterior grades of "Hello", "Aqua", "Flourishing", "Eurotex", "Bor".
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