Find out which authority in this country is competent on the question of extending visas to foreigners. Usually require the services of the Ministry, whose mandate includes questions of citizenship and migration. Find out the rules of treatment, visiting days and hours, the possibility of an application through the Internet. Carefully consider your visa. Specify which type it belongs and how much you still have time to legalize their stay in the country.
Determine which group of reasons is your. Force majeure is insurmountable obstacles over which you have no power. These include natural disasters, all kinds of disasters, accidents and disease. In the EU Schengen area you can stay and for serious personal reasons, e.g. due to the birth of the baby, the death of loved ones, for political or religious reasons, or business interests. In the first case, the visa extension will be done free of charge, and in the second, it will cost 30 euros.
Collect a maximum of documents that confirm your situation. If you are arrested with a shipment at the airport, ask for help. If there was damage to your health, take extract from medical institution. The same applies to personal circumstances: they need to confirm.
Please submit the application to the competent authority on the extension of the visa. Together with a request to submit your passport with a valid visa and all the documents about your case. The answer you will get depends on the urgency of the situation. But usually the decision is made not more than 10 days. The type and area of validity of the visa does not change if no special decisions of the competent authority.
Another option is to apply for a new visa. It is important that the dates of the old and the new permit of stay did not overlap, and were strictly one after another. Schengen rules allow for one entry visa and exit on the other.