Fresh, no preservatives, whole blood is administered intravenously by direct transfusion to a patient from a donor. Such a need usually arises in emergency situations when people lose a lot of blood or when there is no large supply of frozen components.
If the patient who, for example, will undergo surgery on the kidney or liver, blood of rare group and it is impossible to quickly find the donor, using the method of autotransfusion. He poured their own blood before surgery accumulate parts and can.
Transfusion of your own blood, say, from a vein in the buttock do in the treatment of many diseases. Autologous blood transfusion is often informally used in sports and is called "blood doping", as it improves the endurance of the body and especially the muscles.
When, due to excessive bleeding, the blood accumulates in the cavity or in the operated wound, it is also used for transfusion. It is kind of autotransfusion is the reinfusion of blood. It is used for deep injuries to the chest or abdomen, ectopic pregnancy, traumatic operations.
In acute renal failure, severe poisoning you want to remove partly or completely the blood with toxins and replace it with healthy. In such cases, carry out exchange transfusion. Their kind – hemodialysis is essential for patients with kidney failure.
But the most convenient and versatile method for the indirect transfusion of blood or blood ingredients. They are entered using disposable systems-droppers usually a vein, rarely an artery, the aorta or the bone tissue.
Without not do blood transfusions with significant blood loss (over 30%), shock, severe anemia, blood diseases, sepsis, bleeding that cannot be stopped, difficult births, extensive surgical operations.
And yet a blood transfusion is a risky intervention, because it cannot be excluded that it may cause failures in the functioning of the body. The blood transfusion there are a lot of serious contraindications: diseases and heart diseases, severe hypertension, stroke, and hemiparesis, disorders of protein metabolism, bronchial asthma, exacerbation of allergies, hypothyroidism, burns, etc.
Blood transfusion nor should women who had previously had a miscarriage, difficult birth or birth of babies with jaundice, cancer patients, patients with abnormalities of blood, prolonged purulent processes. But if blood transfusion is essential, and the patient has contraindications, blood transfusion still hold. At the same prophylactically prescribe drugs to prevent possible pressure spikes or allergic reactions.