Classification of occupational diseases
They are divided into acute and chronic. Acute diseases are often a poisoning appear after abnormal leakage or emission of toxic substances.
Chronic diseases develop gradually and imperceptibly due to prolonged exposure to harmful conditions. All of these conditions are classified into five main groups.
Toxins that are technologically important in many industries, can enter the body with inhaled air, contaminated water or food, through contact with the skin.
Spreading through the bloodstream, some toxins accumulate in the lungs, others in the kidneys, others the liver, the fourth in the bone marrow etc. They can irritate the organs and provoke inflammation, to act destructively on the blood or nervous system, cause allergies or cancer.
Among the mass of industrial toxins – chlorine and its compounds, derivative of phosphorus, sulfur, nitrogen, fluorine, chromium, beryllium, carbonyl metal compounds. They have to deal with a work at pulp and paper mills, glass factories, nurses, disinfectant, working, producing chemical fertilizers, the farmers, metallurgists, and many others.
Once on the skin, the dust can cause itching, redness, clog sweat and sebaceous glands. Gradually cracks appear, rashes, pustular disease. Delicate mucous membranes irritated from any kind of dust, and this leads to the development of conjunctivitis, ophthalmia, diseases of the lungs.
The miners suffer from pneumoconiosis, turners, millers, textile workers, workers of tobacco factories. Silicone sick workers cement and brick factories, miners, masons. Sigaretami – working of gold, copper, tin mines, jewelers and engravers, glassmakers, potters and craftsmen of porcelain. Beryllium – specialists involved in the manufacture of fluorescent lamps, x-ray tubes and ceramics.
Very harmful to the body vibration emanating from hand held power tools, pneumatic tools, machines. The most sensitive hands and the arches of the feet. Vibration disease often found in miners, drillers, drivers, weavers.
For work associated with the systematic exposure to ultrasonic, electromagnetic, laser radiation, developing vegetative polyneuritis, noise disease, leading to hearing loss. Due to the ionizing radiation of radioactive substances can occur from radiation sickness metallurgists of special education, submariners, radiologists. And decompression sickness – pilots, divers.
When under load are systematically the same muscle groups, develop their disease: various neuritis, plexitis, bursitis, radiculitis, arthrosis deformans, etc. They often suffer carpenters, plasterers, painters, blacksmiths, tailors, workers in mining, engineering industry and agriculture.
People who have a lot to write, developing a kind of neurosis: writer's cramp. Teachers, lecturers, constantly straining the vocal cords, falastine. And the computer scientists, jewelers, watchmakers, archivists and many other myopia.
There are occupations associated with increased infectious and parasitic danger. So, for example, tuberculosis often suffer from health workers TB dispensaries. Brucellosis, glanders, foot and mouth disease – livestock. Psittacosis – workers of poultry farms.
Erysipeloid infection affecting the skin, joints often hurt the sellers of contaminated meat and fish, workers of meat-packing plants, canneries. Helminthic diseases ankilostomidoze the exposed agricultural workers and miners.
According to the Federation of independent trade unions of Russia, are leading among diseases decrease or loss of hearing, vibration disease, radiculitis surge and pneumoconiosis.