Advice 1: What science relate to humanitarian

The main subject of study of the Humanities is actually the man himself, but also his spiritual, mental, moral and other spheres of life. They often overlap with other type of scientific knowledge – a public that opposes humanitarian Sciences natural: the subject-subject and subject-object relations, respectively. But what disciplines belong to this type?
What science relate to humanitarian
Such Sciences and directions, combining several disciplines, quite a lot:
- at first glance a rather unusual discipline Humanities geography (includes geophilosophy, cognitive geography, cultural landscapeology, sterilizaciju and others);
- art history;
- cultural geography;
- science of science (including scientometrics, scientific ethics, psychology, science, facts, etc);
- pedagogy;
- psycholinguistics;
- psychology;
- mathematics;
- rhetoric;
- philosophy;
- Philology (linguistics, literary studies, semiotics and many other disciplines);
- cultural studies;
- social science and social studies.
This lists only the largest Humanities and their group, but this list is not the most complete, since all possible disciplines list is quite difficult because of their large number.
Interestingly, in the case of the Humanities took shape rather late, only in the early 19th century, when ekarakulova words "the science of the spirit." For the first time this term was used by Shil in translation work "System of logic" John. St. Mill. No small role in shaping these disciplines also played the work of W. Dilthey, "Introduction to the science of the spirit" (1883), in which the author explains the principle of the methodology of Humanities and considered a number of critical issues. It is the German Dilthey introduced another term – the "objectification of life", which helped to address the issue of interpretation of the historically existing forms of scientific knowledge.
The famous Russian scientist M. M. Bakhtin, in turn, believed that the main object of the present humanitarian studies is the problem of understanding and speech, and text as an objective cultural reality. It is through text, not through formulary designation and you can understand the subject of study, since knowledge is the embodiment of the text, its intentions, reasons, causes, goals and purpose. Thus, in this type of disciplines the primacy remains with the speech and text as well as its meaning and the so-called hermeneutic study.
The latest concept appeared thanks to such science as hermeneutics, which constitutes the art of interpretation, the correct interpretation and understanding. In the 20th century it developed into one of the areas of philosophy, based on the literary text. One sees the surrounding reality exclusively through the prism of the surrounding cultural layer or through the combination of a certain number of basic texts.

Advice 2: What Sciences are the natural

Natural science, convey to mankind the combination of available knowledge about natural processes and phenomena. The concept of "science" is actively developed in the 17-19th centuries, when scientists specializing on it, called naturalists. The main difference of this group from the Humanities or social Sciences is the field of study, since the latter are based on human society, not natural processes.
What Sciences are the natural
Basic Sciences related to the concept of "natural", are physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, geography and Geology, which over time could change and unite together. In this way arose such disciplines as Geophysics, soil science, Astrofizika, climatology, biochemistry, meteorology, physical chemistry and chemical physics.
Physics and its classical theory were formed during the life of Isaac Newton, then developed, thanks to the labors of Faraday, Ohm and Maxwell. In the 20th century there was a revolution of this science, which showed the inefficacy of the traditional theory. Not the last role in this was played by albert Einstein previous to the present physical "boom" during the Second world war. In 40-ies of the last century a powerful stimulus of development of this science was the creation of the atomic bomb.
Chemistry was a continuation of earlier alchemy began with the famous work of Robert Boyle "Chemist-the skeptic", published in 1661. In the future, in the framework of this science has been actively developing the so-called critical thinking, which developed in the days of Cullen and black. Well, you cannot ignore atomic mass determination and remarkable invention Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869 (the periodic law of the universe).
The beginning biology was initiated in 1847, when a doctor in Hungary has offered its patients to wash their hands to avoid spreading germs. Later, Louis Pasteur developed this direction, linking processes of putrefaction and fermentation, as well as inventing pasteurization.
Geography, constantly driven by a search for new lands, went hand in hand with cartography, especially fast-paced in the 17th and 18th centuries, when the result of the search of the southern continent of the planet was open to Australia, and James cook made three trips around the world. In Russia, this science developed during the reign of Catherine I and Lomonosov, the founder of the Geographical Department of the Academy of Sciences.
Last but not least, science was the beginning of Leonardo da Vinci and Girolamo Frakastoro, which suggested that the planet's history is much longer than the biblical narrative. Then, in the 17th and 18th centuries, formed the General theory of the Earth, which gave rise to the scientific works of Robert Hooke, John ray, Joanne Woodward and other geologists.
Mistakenly attributing to the number of natural Sciences mathematics, which together with the logic part of another group – formal and differs in the form of methodology. For the same reasons applies to natural, not computer science, but other science – natural science – on the contrary, applies.
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