Advice 1: How long is the examination of DNA

DNA examination allows to determine the genetic relationship and to identify a number of serious congenital diseases. Currently, the analysis has a sufficiently large number of clinics.
How long is the examination of DNA

How to make a DNA examination



Examination of the DTCs is performed for various purposes, it may be the identification of a genetic disease or to determine paternity. For examination of DNA required a biological material – blood, nails, hair, saliva or skin cells. The blood in the laboratory, nails, hair, skin cells, a cheek swab you can take at home. A swab of saliva from the cells of the epithelium take a cotton swab from the inside of the cheeks. For taking a smear should be rubbed with a stick on the inside of the cheeks, making a circular motion for ten to twenty seconds.

For each participant examination, it is recommended to use two or four sticks, they must be placed in containers envelopes that you need to sign. Set of genetic material for analysis can be stored for several months, however, it is recommended to transfer it to the lab no later than within seven to ten days, as further decreases the likelihood of successful DNA extraction. The result of the analysis will be ready in about twenty days. The result of examination of DNA paternity is a document composed on the letterhead with the print lab. It contains a conclusion about the likelihood of paternity, and also genetic screening test - information about the structure of DNA, unique to each person.
The DNA can be held anonymously.


The essence of the DNA examination



Examination is performed by the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Its essence consists in the following. The child inherits DNA from the mother and from the father, each parent is "responsible" for 1/2 the DNA of their child. Each person has twenty three pairs of chromosomes, each chromosome pair site (locus) are DNA fragments (alleles). The examination is conducted by identifying certain alleles for a plurality of sections of chromosomes of the mother, father and child.
Minors can do such an analysis only with the consent of his parents.


If mother and father are the parents of the child, the child chromosomes of two fragments of DNA at each locus must be inherited, one from each parent. The establishment of maternity or paternity is based on these fragments. DNA is the most accurate method of establishing paternity. In the case of a negative answer accuracy is 100% in case of positive response, it is 99.9%-99,99999%.

Advice 2: How much for genetic analysis of paternity

The procedure for establishing paternity is usually administered in the course of judicial or other proceedings. Innovative equipment allows to carry out precision examination, which includes testing and DNA diagnosis, DNA analysis.
DNA analysis is the surest way of determining paternity
To identify whether a person is a father, it is necessary to compare its DNA fragment and the DNA fragment of the child. Children receive equal amounts of DNA from father and mother. The accuracy of the result estimated at the 99.9%. This will depend on the number of investigated biological material and its nature. In humans, there are DNA fragments that are isolated and individual, they make people different from each other.
In the event of litigation, the result of the DNA analysis is conclusive proof, if it was carried out in accordance with all state standards and its accuracy is not less than 99,75%.


How much is the examination


The cost of this service will vary depending on the complexity of the analysis, the number of participants, and the number of loci (fragments) of DNA that was subjected to comparison. Sometimes it is necessary to explore unconventional biological material (nails, hair, blood stains), it increases the cost of analysis. A simple DNA test costs about 13 thousand rubles.


Sometimes establishing paternity is required in prenatal period. In this case, the mother gives permission for the sampling of biological material to the unborn child. The cost of such examination is much higher, ranging from 55 thousand rubles.


Sometimes alleged fathers refused to hand over material to analyze. Therefore resort to another method of establishing paternity. Here the participation of next-of-kin men. Their DNA establishes kinship. Cost of such test will be about 14 thousand rubles. Need to compare a large number of DNA fragments to give an accurate result. Time genetic examination is 10-12 working days.
Genetic examination is a fairly complicated procedure in psychological terms for both sides (father and child) and requires significant financial investment.


Federation of judicial experts


To analyze DNA, it is necessary to apply to the Federation of judicial experts. Laboratories of this organization are located in each region. Biological material harvested from the inside of your cheek with a cotton swab. This method is recognized as the most hygienic, easy, painless. It does not require the presence of medical personnel. Biological material collected on two cotton swabs. She needs to hold on the inside of the cheek about 20 times. All the tests are carefully Packed with witnesses and sealed. Not a valid substitution samples or autopsy without the knowledge of the experts. All the information on the genetic examination documented.
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