Advice 1: What is the echogenicity

Echogenicity is one of the main characteristics in ultrasound diagnostics. It is used to describe the studied organs. The change in echogenicity is no evidence of pathology in organs and tissues.
What is the echogenicity

Echogenicity and echostructure



The term "echogenicity" reflects the degree of tissue density of an organ. Its changes can occur due to various diseases. In most cases, the echogenicity of organs is reduced due to the inflammation or swelling. Along with this term in ultrasound diagnostics also uses the term "echostructure", which denotes a certain combination of ultrasound elements. Echogenicity and echostructure of the object is determined, the comparison of the structure with the level scale on the monitor of the ultrasonic device.

The echogenicity of the test body depends on its acoustic properties (reflection, sound conductivity, refraction and absorption of sound waves). In turn, they are determined by the morphological structure of the object. The pattern of the relationship of morphological and ultrasonic tissue build is as follows: the less the structure is fluid, but its echogenicity is higher and, conversely, the more liquid it contains, the lower its echogenicity.

Levels echogenicity



When ultrasound examination revealed objects of 4 types: hyperechoic (increased echogenicity), isoechoic (echogenicity normal), hypoechoic (low echogenicity) and anechoic (echogenicity missing). The degree of decrease of echogenicity can be divided into expressed (closer to anechoic) and moderate (closer to isoechoic). Hyperechogenic structures do not contain liquid, they have the greatest acoustic density (reflected sound wave), and the low sound conductivity. Such elements are visualized with the naked human eye.

Isoechoic tissue corresponds to the unchanged body, as well as tumors, because they have almost the same total cellularity of the tissues. Hypoechoic tissue corresponds to a different diffuse pathologies. It represents the areas of high cellularity, specific to certain types of tissue tumors. Isoechoic and hypoechoic elements can only correspond to the cell structures.

Anechoic or hydrophilic structures have no internal echoes. They are represented by objects containing liquid component (for example, cystic cavities). Anechoic structures have high visual sensitivity. With changes of echogenicity of an organ is necessary to consult a doctor. You may have to undergo additional screening. The earlier the disease is detected, the more effective the treatment will be.

Advice 2: The types of echogenicity of objects with ultrasound diagnostics

Ultrasound diagnosis takes pride of place in the field of diagnostic methods and procedures. Ultrasonic methods are accurate, do not take much time and does not require spending large amounts of money — all this explains the popularity of this type of research.
Ultrasound diagnosis is a highly informative method of investigation

Features of ULTRASONIC diagnostics



Ultrasound diagnosis is based on the ability of organs and tissues to reflect ultrasound waves. Ultrasonic sensor continuously sends a signal which is reflected off the internal organs and returns to the source. And during the procedure, the doctor watches on the monitor a black and white image.

With the help of ultrasound can assess the condition of many internal organs and systems: brain, thyroid gland, mammary glands, the heart and major vessels, stomach and the pancreas, liver, its ducts and the gall bladder, kidneys and pelvic organs. In certain cases, ultrasound is used to diagnose pathologies of the intestine. The value of ultrasonic diagnosis cannot be overemphasized.

On what does the "picture" on the monitor of the doctor



The image on the monitor of the ultrasound machine is always black and white. The intensity of the black color depends on the echogenicity of organs.

The echogenicity, or ecoprotect is the ability of tissues to reflect ultrasound signal. Each organ has its own rate of ehoplotnosti.

Echogenicity happens:



- average isoechogenic on the monitor reflected gray;
- reduced hypoechoic, the image on the screen a dark grey, closer to black;
- increased the hyperechogenicity on the screen in white.
- absence of echogenicity, anechogenic, absolutely black objects on the monitor.

Reduced ecoprotect means that the structure of an organ or soft tissue, transmits the ultrasound signal with minimal obstacles, such as soft tissue abscesses in the organs, accumulation of blood in the cavity.

Increased echogenicity is characteristic for dense structures, which do not pass the ultrasonic wave. Are the bones of calcium deposits in vessels and organs, as well as the accumulation of gas in the intestines.

The echogenicity does not have a body fluid content of the bladder and the cyst.

The average echogenicity of many of the organs of the reproductive system: the uterus, ovaries in women and testicles in men.

But not only the echogenicity should pay attention at ultrasound. Doctor of ultrasonic diagnostics evaluates:

the contours of the body: they are smooth or rough, for some organs also evaluated the symmetry;
- the structure of the body: it is homogeneous or contains any inclusions, and what acoplamento these inclusions possess;
focal changes: this item plays a special role, because focal abnormalities may indicate neoplasms of different nature.

You cannot rely solely on the echogenicity of the object, but it is certainly one of the key parameters in ultrasonic diagnosis, giving the opportunity to assess the health of internal organs.

Advice 3: What is diagnostic ultrasound

Ultrasonic diagnostics in medicine is a method of study of human organs, based on the ability of ultrasonic waves to penetrate tissues, showing a picture of the condition of the body on the screen.
An ultrasound can detect abnormalities of fetal development
Instruction
1
At the time of diagnosis using the ultrasound revealed a large number of disorders and diseases of the internal organs. The method is absolutely harmless to humans and has a wide availability due to the relatively low cost of the apparatus. Ultrasound findings known immediately, but the procedure itself does not bring the patient any discomfort and pain.
2
Currently, ultrasound is used for diagnosing diseases of organs of small pelvis, abdominal cavity, prostate, mammary glands, joints, tissues, heart, thyroid, eyes, lymph nodes, blood vessels and many other organs and tissues. With the help of ultrasound studies during pregnancy. There are modern 3D devices, allowing to build the most detailed picture and see the face of the unborn child. Technical innovation is a colored ultrasound, its use is most relevant in the diagnosis of vascular diseases.
3
During the examination the patient lies on the couch, the doctor puts on the skin of the examined area with a special gel and using a sensor, conducting a survey, comparing the obtained results with the accepted norm. The use of ultrasound in head injury allows you to find the location of hemorrhages, find the midline of the brain. Breast ultrasound reveals pathological processes. Ultrasound of internal organs show changes and abnormalities in their structure, detects the presence of adhesive processes and fluid in the abdominal cavity. Detects cirrhosis of the liver, hepatitis, cholelithiasis, etc. Allows us to deliver more accurate diagnosis and to choose the right tactics of treatment.
4
Study of the heart helps to keep track of his work during surgery and reveals pathology in his work. Ultrasound of the kidneys, bladder, male and female sexual organs reveals benign and malignant tumors and some diseases. Ultrasound examination allows to assess the condition of the fetus, to identify congenital and hereditary diseases, the development of the fetus, in pregnancy, to assess the condition of the genital organs of the mother. The number of studies is limited. Usually performed in 11, 20 and 30 weeks.
5
Despite all the advantages of ultrasound, remember that the doctor conducting the study needs to give conclusion and treatment should get your doctor. When choosing treatment it should be based on the totality of data obtained from ultrasound, analyses and research. The accuracy and reliability of ultrasound depends on the available features and chronic diseases of the patient, the monitor size and performance of the device.

Advice 4: What is a hypoechoic education

Hypoechoic education - the area of the body with reduced acoustic density, which can be detected during an ultrasound. Such education is often a symptom of pathology, but diagnosis necessarily need additional research.
Hypoechoic education
The term hypoechoic education" came into use with the advent of medical techniques ultrasound. As you know, during the procedure, ultrasound machine generates and sends to the studied organs high-frequency sound vibrations. Bodies in turn form the reflected ultrasound, which is in the form of an echo returns, perceived by the sensor device and converted into a picture on the monitor screen. Evaluation of the obtained data allows to draw the right conclusions about the state of organs and tissues.

Characteristic hypoechogenic education



With the help of ultrasound we can evaluate not only the location and size of the body, but also its structure. This introduces the concept of acoustic density or echogenicity, which means the speed of ultrasonic waves in the tissue or organ. Each on its value of acoustic density.

Hypoechoic education is a part of the body with reduced acoustic density, in which ultrasonic waves move slower than the surrounding space. The picture shows such a plot is considerably darker than the other structures.

Most often hypoechoic education – this cavity with thin walls, inside of which is a liquid. Such education can take various forms and contours and arranged in a variety of organs: the uterus, thyroid and mammary glands, liver, kidneys, ovaries.

Which means the appearance of a hypoechogenic education



During the ultrasound the doctor not only finds education with reduced density, but describes in detail what it looks like. If the structure is jagged, it could be a cyst, a tumor, a fibroadenoma and adenos breast cancer. The structure of rounded shape with smooth edges is often normal or parasitic cysts, tumor, galactocele in the mammary gland during lactation or follicle, if the investigation of the ovaries at mid-cycle.

Detected hypoechogenic formation may be any kind of pathology, but in any case, its presence suggests the need for more research. In particular, the doctor may prescribe biochemical analysis of blood and study using video-endoscopic techniques, ie, laparoscopy, bronchoscopy and cytoscopy. Sometimes requires a biopsy of an organ, which is accurate to 99% allows to confirm or refute the diagnosis.
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