The origin of the Dacron
The word "Dacron" is the primordially Russian word, though seemingly belonging to some foreign language. There is a word in the 1950-ies. At that time in the Laboratory of Macromolecular Compounds of the Academy of Sciences we developed polyester fibre, characterized by a special strength. Its name is an acronym.
Soon this fibre began to produce on an industrial scale. The raw material is oil. The name given to the place of invention material, so for him it was fixed. However, in other countries, otherwise referred to as Dacron. For example, in France it terhal in the UK – double in USA – Dacron. There this material appeared about ten years earlier than in Russia.
The use of Dacron
Dacron fiber is has a fairly wide range of applications. However, the most famous polyester in fabric and knitwear. Products from polyester are crease-resistant, do not fade. They retain heat well. Besides, very durable. However, Dacron is not hygroscopic, poorly absorbs moisture, so clothes made of polyester is not quite hygienic.
Very often when creating fabrics Dacron fiber is used not by itself, but mix it with cotton or woolen threads and viscose. The result is things that combine as the properties of natural tissues and the properties of the Dacron. They are less crumple, remaining comfortable.
In addition to the textile industry, polyester is widely used in medicine. Produces surgical sutures, and used in the creation of materials for prosthetics. Dacron is not rejected by the tissues of the body and is not subject to "absorption", which allows the implant to remain unchanged throughout a person's life.
Dacron is indispensable in the manufacture of various industrial equipment. It is made ropes and fishing nets, conveyor belts and drive belts. Mylar material is used for increased durability.
In the chemical industry of Dacron make containers, bottles, packaging material. In this case, the Dacron is convenient because it is resistant to various aggressive environments. He is not afraid of high temperatures, exposure to oxidants, it is not destroyed, while the light for a long time.
Products made of polyester are marked by the abbreviation PET, or polyethylene terephthalate (PET in English-speaking countries), which means that the full chemical name of the material – polyethylene.
Advice 2: What is synthetic polymers
Synthetic polymers are artificially produced by synthesis, a simple low molecular weight substances. Polymers have found wide application in light, heavy and food industries, construction, etc.
The polymer is represented by a macromolecular substance consisting of periodically repeating chain structures of monomers. In the printing industry, heavy industry, light and food industries the variety of synthetic polymeric materials. We are talking about elastomers – synthetic rubber and rubber, plastomers – synthetic resins and plastic masses, paints, adhesives, synthetic fibers and fabrics, photopolymers, "free" films.
Synthetic polymers are the result of polymerization, copolymerization and polycondensation. Properties of polymers determine their molecular weight. Materials having a higher molecular weight show higher mechanical bending strength, rupture, twisting, but the worst solubility. All synthetic polymers have one typical feature, namely the polydispersity. That is, molecules of the same polymer can be of different sizes and with different numbers of structural units. Therefore, speaking about the molecular weight of the polymer, is not the true value of the mass of each molecule, but only its average value.
High temperature synthetic polymer melt, and at low gain amorphous structure. Some materials can acquire a crystalline structure. They have a higher melting point and greater strength. Synthetic polymers can be thermoplastic and thermosetting. The first is able to repeatedly molded without much loss of original properties, and the second irreversibly hardened by prolonged heating due to the flow of thermochemical reactions.
Synthetic polymeric materials are significantly superior in many respects non-ferrous and ferrous metals, glass, wood, etc. This is achieved due to the lower cost of production, installation and continued operation. For example, in light industry are created of woven and knitted fabrics made of polyester, nylon, acrylic, polypropylene and etc. They are characterized by high strength, lightness, elasticity, low thermal conductivity and resistance to chemical, physical and atmospheric influences.
In construction, the greatest use found karbomidnye and phenol-formaldehyde resin. Of them receive tube, tape, tiles, insulation materials, paper laminates, varnishes, adhesives, waterproofing compounds, etc. In the printing used polystyrene for the casting of a white material and printing fonts. Polyvinyl chloride is indispensable for the manufacture of flat and rotary stereotypes, book bindings, duplicates, plates and etc.