Instructions for use of "Chloramphenicol"
"Chloramphenicol" active against wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria: Shigella, Salmonella, streptococci, chlamydia, and others. The drug is prescribed for the treatment of diseases that were caused by microorganisms sensitive to the drug, for example:
- respiratory tract infections (lung abscess, pneumonia);
infections of the abdominal cavity (paratyphoid, typhoid, sigalos, peritonitis, salmonellosis);
- meningitis, trachoma, chlamydia, and tularemia.
The action of this drug does not apply to protozoa, fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.
"Chloramphenicol" is assigned individually in each case. The duration of intake of the drug and the required dose should be determined by the doctor. Take the medication half an hour before meals, not chewing and drinking water. If "Chloramphenicol" can cause nausea, it should be taken an hour after food. Usually adults appoint 250-500 mg "Chloramphenicol" 3-4 times a day. Means taking regular intervals of time. For serious infectious diseases appoint 500-1000 mg "Chloramphenicol" 3-4 times a day. The highest daily dose of 4000 mg. the Use of maximum doses is possible only in hospital, as it is necessary to constantly monitor the blood picture, renal function, liver.
Children from 3 to 8 years 125 mg "Chloramphenicol" 3-4 times a day, children aged 8-16 years - 250 mg 3 to 4 times a day. The duration of intake of the drug in children and adults is 1-1. 5 weeks. If "Chloramphenicol" is well tolerated and does not cause side effects in the hematopoietic system, if necessary the duration can be increased to two weeks. Alcoholic solution of "Chloramphenicol" is prescribed for bacterial infections of the skin, trophic ulcers, bedsores, boils. Damaged skin is treated with a cotton swab dipped in an alcohol solution.
Contraindications to the appointment of "Chloramphenicol", side effects of the drug
"Chloramphenicol" is contraindicated in patients with dysfunction of the hematopoietic system, severe diseases of kidney, liver, case of hypersensitivity to azidophenyl, thiamphenicol and to components of the preparation.
"Chloramphenicol" is not used for the treatment of fungal skin diseases, eczema, psoriasis, acute respiratory infections, including sore throats, prevention of infectious complications after surgery.
While taking the drug may have side effects from the gastrointestinal tract: vomiting, nausea, irregular bowel movement, indigestion, enterocolitis, the intestinal microflora, stomatitis. With the development of pseudomembranous colitis during prolonged use of the drug should stop taking "Chloramphenicol".
From the cardiovascular system and the hemopoietic system may increase the blood levels of red blood cells, platelets, leukocytes, appearance of anemia, changes in blood pressure. From the nervous system dizziness, headache, emotional instability, confusion, fatigue, hearing, vision, taste sensations, brain damage, hallucinations. Can have allergic reactions on the skin.
Advice 2 : "Chloramphenicol": instruction for use in children
The antibiotic "Chloramphenicol" is used for the treatment of many infectious and inflammatory diseases. Children this medicine may be designated in the form of tablets, injections, topical solution, and eye drops.
Dosage "Chloramphenicol" in the tablets depends on the child's age. Children 3-8 years should give 150 mg of the drug per dose. One-time amount for children over 8 years is 200-400 mg to drug should Drink 3-4 times a day, 30 minutes before a meal. Therapy is conducted 7-10 days. With good tolerability treatment of "Chloramphenicol" can be extended to 2 weeks.
Children under 3 years take this medicine only allowed on zhiznennym indications. This is due to the risk of "gray syndrome" caused by accumulation of active components of the drug in the body. This disease is followed by hypothermia, disturbance of the heart, breathing problems, blue-gray skin color. On prescription dosage "Chloramphenicol" for children under 3 years of age is 15 mg/kg of body weight. The drug should be to give the child 3 times a day.
Powder "Chloramphenicol" is used for the preparation of injection solution. Before use it must be diluted with sterile water. Dilution of the vial contents 1 take 2-3 ml of water for injections or sodium chloride solution. Children injections "Chloramphenicol" make a muscle, injecting the medication as deeply as possible. The daily dosage of the solution for children under 1 year 25-30 mg/kg over 1 year – 50 mg/kg. This number should be divided into 2 admission, making shots every 12 hours. In meningitis and bacteremia, the daily dose may be increased to 75 mg/kg.
Externally "Chloramphenicol" is used in the alcohol solution of 1-10%. This form can be applied directly to the skin, wipe with dampened inflammation in the means of cotton swab. It is also possible to use impregnated "Chloramphenicol" gauze sponges, including their allowed to cover occluzionna bandage. The treatment solution lasts on average 5-7 days, in complicated cases, longer. Dressing changes are recommended every 1-2 days.
Eye drops "Chloramphenicol" used in the treatment of pediatric ophthalmic diseases. You can use this tool only for health reasons. As a rule, is assigned to introduce 1 drop of medicine in each eye with a frequency of 3-4 times a day. The duration of therapy is determined for each child individually.
"Chloramphenicol" should not be used for the treatment of common colds and flu, as well as trivial infections due to the high toxicity of the drug. This medicine is contraindicated in newborns up to the age of 4 weeks.
If in the use of tablets "Chloramphenicol" the child has nausea, it is recommended to go to the reception means 1 hour after a meal.