Take a sheet of plywood and draw the silhouette of the future of the shieldand give it the desired shape. If you do round shield, then hammer in a nail the plywood and tie him to a rope with a pencil on the end, with their help you will be able to draw a smooth circle. Cut out the blank using a jigsaw or saw. Do not forget to do in the middle of the shieldand the hole in which freely will pass your fist.
For shieldand fabricate the handle and two holding strips. Attach them to the inside of the shield. Use nails with a diameter of the cap at least 6 mm and a stem diameter of not less than 3.5 mm. If the nail will stick out from the back, bite the tip of the pliers.
Glue the shield in leather, burlap or linen cloth. If you hang the shield skin, use fish glue if the fabric, PVA glue. When wrapping the fabric better to do several layers. Impregnate the fabric glue, glue the shield. Drill the holes for the shield boss.
Make a shield boss. It is usually out of steel billet casinoi not less than 1.5 mm.
Using leather strips and metal studs upholster the edge of the shield. Choose small cloves, which will not pass through the plywood. Using two bolts to fasten the shielde shield boss and handle. The handle is wrap with strips of skin, so she rubbed hand while using the shield. If you had plastered the shield skin, then drill around the perimeter of the holes using a fine drill bit and sew the skin of linen or nylon thread.
Provoshielde leather lining. To the joints, put the metal plates, attaching them with the studs or rivets.
Using paint and stain apply on shield need the drawings. Decorate the shield metal decorative elements. If necessary, attach a leather strap for convenience in carrying. RUB the surface of the wax candle and heat over the fire. Shield ready.
For the manufacture of a handle often use wood of elm, oak or cherry.
Advice 2: How to make a concrete ring
To establish in the country a well or septic tank must have a concrete ring. They are strong and durable, they are easy to mount. The home of the master, whose hands are elbows forward, you can start making concrete rings themselves.
You will need
- cement, gravel, sand, gravel, water;
- - wooden planks with a thickness of 20-50 mm, roofing sheets, plywood;
- - steel rods Ø 8-10 mm or steel reinforcing wire Ø 6-8 mm;
- - engine oil;
- - metal pin Ø 10-20 mm.
Pitch wooden formwork of the outer and inner cylindrical surfaces. To do this, we put together two wooden rings for assembling the outer cylinder and two rings for the inner cylinder. The sides of the forms can be manufactured as boards and roofing sheet, plywood, etc. make the Formwork collapsible, consisting of several parts. Secure the wall forms wooden planks. The diameters of the cylinders are interconnected with an outer Ø of 1000 mm and inner Ø 900 mm the resulting thickness of the concrete ring 100 mm. For W/b rings of sufficient thickness 50 mm.
Lubricate with engine oil turned to cement mortar the surface of the cylinder to facilitate their removal. Then the cylinder is of larger diameter set on a wooden shield and strengthen. Exactly in the center of the outer cylinder insert the cylinder interior.
Enter the lugs of the reinforcing wire (for concrete rings) or a reinforcing cage (W/W rings) into the gap between the cylinder walls. To hold the valve in a certain position to place the 4 wedge.
Prepare the cement slurry composed of cement (1 part), sand (2-3 parts), gravel, slag or gravel (4-5 pieces). Take the binder with fresh cement is not below grade "400". Good astringent properties of Portland cement or cement with no mineral admixtures. It contains up to 5% of magnesium oxide and up to 8% tricalcium aluminate. The most commonly used cement brands М500Д0 and М400Д0.
Use as filler cleaned of impurities, natural-enriched with quartz sand, the fineness modulus of which varies in the range of 2.0-2.2 mm. the Largest size of coarse filler should not exceed 20 mm. so, for the manufacture of concrete rings concrete mix of small and large fillers – sand, gravel and crushed stone, binder – cement and water.
Put the obtained cement slurry in the gap between the cylinders to a height of not more than 100 mm, metal pin, carefully tighten it. Move the wedges to a height of 150-200 mm in order to fill concrete and seal the place of their stay. Method of weaning complete the entire form. After 4 days free obtained a concrete ring from the casing.
Leave the ring on a wooden shield still day 4, periodically spraying it with water. This will give the concrete increased durability. Remove from the surface of the concrete ring engine oil. Production of concrete rings is completed.
Clayey and silty Sands significantly impair the quality of concrete, therefore are not used here.
Thoroughly mix the cement slurry as the strength of the concrete mass depends on its homogeneity. When working in cold weather use an antifreeze additive.