Pit latrine is the cheapest option. Mounting is very simple using a minimum of skills and tools. To calculate the required volume of the sump, multiply the half cubic metre on the number of family members. That is, if you have a family of 5 persons, the volume of the sump should be at least 2.5 cubic meters. Lay it so that the top of the pit was 1 m from the surface of the earth. It is at this level is given to her sewer pipe. In order to avoid getting fecal matter in ground water, the cesspool must be carefully isolated. For this, the walls of the pit are laid with brick or concrete, the top coated with a layer of bitumen. To make the overlap of the sump is sufficient to cover the treated wood with bitumen sheets and covered with soil. In this slab be sure to make a hatch for removal of content, as it must regularly be emptied. Naturally to accommodate this hole should be in a location that is accessible for the entrance of special equipment.
Septic tanks have several advantages compared to pit latrines. First, they do not need regular cleaning, and secondly, they are not an example of a longer sump. The easiest way to arrange a septic tank of concrete rings. Its body is well insulated with bitumen. The volume of the section of the septic tank shall be not less than 3 times the daily intake of water. From the house to the septic tank must be at least 20 meters, as all incoming septic sewage fall after clarification through a drain directly into the soil. Clean the septic tank once a year 1, and the contents of the septic tank can be used as fertilizers.
Filter wells put in those houses, where very little water consumption – not more than 1 cubic meter. The round well has dimensions of 2.5 m in depth and 2 meters in width. Of course the casing of the well is also sealed, as in the case of a cesspool and a septic tank. On the bottom of the well is placed 1 meter of gravel, slag, crushed stone, in short any building material that can serve as a filter. Conditions for the placement of the filtering well is the following: it should not be near the intake, and the bottom should be above the groundwater level on the meter. Where groundwater close to the surface to establish a well is undesirable.
Advice 2 : How to make a drain in a private house
The lack of sanitation in the house can greatly damage the life of the owners. If you live in a favorable area, where there is no danger of groundwater contamination, it is possible to do a local sewer and to enjoy life in the fresh air with all amenities.
You will need
- - pipes of various diameter;
- - fittings;
- - brick;
- - waterproofing;
- - welding machine.
Start the Sewerage in the private house interior. Install vertical riser and hover over pipe from all inpribor – pipe should be placed under a small bias (5 mm per meter). From the sink there are pipes of internal diameter 50 mm, from bowl – 100 mm. If you plan to put the pump, the bias is not mandatory.
At the top of the riser put the ventilation grille, it should be located away from Windows and living areas. The riser pipe must rise above the ridge of the roof to not less than 0.5 meters. Well, if the riser is located near a heat source – this will speed up all processes.
From a standpipe located in the house, lay a horizontal outlet pipe – manifold, under a slope of not less than 0.02 (2 cm per meter of pipe). If there is Central sewer, connect to it, otherwise, you need to make a septic tank or cesspool.
Cesspool or septic tank put in not less than 20 metres away from a drinking well close to the road (to drive vacuum trucks). The larger the family, the greater should be the size of the pit. When you clear the pit twice a year for one person must be at least 0.5 cubic meters.
When the device of a cesspool to consider the position of the groundwater, in any weather, at any time of the year they should be no higher than 1 metre from the day of the cesspit. The bottom and walls of the pit lay the bricks or stone in order to achieve better water resistance. Don't forget about waterproofing.
For Sewerage network, use asbestos cement, cast iron or plastic pipe with a minimum diameter of 100 mm or pipes made of ceramic, with a diameter of 150 mm. the Optimum depth of laying the pipes of 1.7-2 meters (in Central Russia), just provide a slope of not less than 0,008-0,01.
That the pipes do not suffer and do not create congestion, try to put them on the pristine soil, i.e. dig a hole to the exact size. If you still need to change the position of the pipe, pour the soil gradually and immediately utrambovyvaya.
When the pipes are laid, check their position. At one end place a candle or lantern, another monitor – if done correctly, you'll see the light at the end of the pipe. Can then cover the trench.