Kanji in Japanese writing many thousands, not counting the two alphabets: hiragana and katakana. It is believed that the minimum level is the knowledge of about 2000 characters. This is enough for reading Newspapers or literature. Themselves characters called kanji, meaning "Chinese character". Hieroglyphs at first glance can seem strange and mysterious. But really, it's not hard to understand. They do not consist of random lines, each ideogram is a picture associated with what points.
We have already mentioned that in order to freely read books in Japanese should know at least 2000 characters. But all these signs consist of no more than 300 elements. They are called keys. Sometimes these elements themselves are whole words. And many of them are rarely used. It is logical to assume that some characters are used more often than others and Vice versa. Of course, you can memorize all the kanji, but this method requires a lot of time and effort. The key point in learning Japanese, and of course Japanese characters, is understanding the values of individual components. Agree, it sounds less scary than memorizing rectangles filled with lines and dots. For example, the character meaning "to listen" ?, not so complicated, if you will see that it consists of two keys: the gate ? and ear ?.
So, to sum up. Each Japanese character is not just an invented symbol. The character came from its value over time, undergoing changes and simplified writing. Each ideogram is made up of separate components. A total of 300, and most of them are rarely used. To eyes do not run away at the sight of Japanese text, learn how to break signs into separate components. This will largely simplify the task.
Advice 2: How to read Chinese characters
Interest in Chinese characters spread across the world: many Europeans, tattoos in the form of the Chinese word, fashionable to wear t-shirts with hieroglyphic prints are such popular gifts as Souvenirs and pictures with wishes of happiness and prosperity in this language. Unfortunately, some people don't even know what's written on the shirt or what expression emblazoned on Souvenirs. If the word from a European language you can easily translate with the help of a dictionary, to read the character is not so simple.
You will need
- the Internet;
- Chinese-Russian dictionary.
The main difference between Chinese characters from the Russian or any other letters is the lack of communication of writing and reading. Each letter in our alphabet has its own pronunciation rules, which are learned, people can read the text, consisting of 33 letters. Characters in the Chinese language a few tens of thousands, and by the way they are written, it is impossible to know their reading. So even the Chinese, meeting in the text of the unfamiliar word you can't pronounce it until you look in the dictionary.
If you need characters, a phrase or sentence in Chinese exist in electronic form, open Google translator, set the translation from Chinese to Russian and paste them in a row to learn the meaning. If you are interested in how to pronounce these Chinese characters, find a Chinese-Russian dictionary (very handy dictionary http://bkrs.info – it has a large database of characters). Insert them in the string together with its translation will be displayed reading, written in Latin letters. This is the Pinyin alphabet, developed for foreigners studying Chinese. Any European would be able to read what's been written thus words, with only a few mistakes – ABC has some characteristics of reading, which take place when learning this language.
To read Chinese characters that are presented in the form of images on a mug, t-shirt, tea set or other Souvenirs, as well as in the form of a calligraphic drawing on electronic media, more difficult. First and foremost, you must know that in modern Chinese characters are written and read from left to right, horizontally, like Europeans. Old inscriptions (poems of ancient poets, ancient manuscripts) can be written from right to left and top to bottom. Remember also that one character represents one word, one meaning, so enter them in the dictionary one by one (presented below).
Find online Chinese-Russian dictionary with manual input (http://cidian.ru, http://www.zhonga.ru). A manual (or handwritten) input means that you can draw kanji with a mouse in a special field. The program will recognize it, compare it with the available database of the dictionary and will give the result – reading and translation. Introducing the character in a special field, follow the rules of calligraphy of the Chinese language: written top to bottom and left to right, divide the character into traits, each of which shall be registered, without lifting a hand. Try to accurately reproduce the image. The program will offer several characters to choose from, click on the appropriate. Handwriting also have some programs dictionaries or special recognizers texts. This option is suitable for those who often have to search for Chinese characters.
If for any reason, manual input is not available, or the program can't recognize the character you draw, find the usual dictionary – the Big Chinese-Russian dictionary Kotova or Mudrova. When searching for in the first dictionary you want to count the number of the features in the character and highlight the first two lines (upper left). At the end of the dictionary, open a page by specifying the desired number of hell, the first two traits, find your character. On the contrary will indicate the reading in Latin letters (alphabet Pinyin), it find the character in the dictionary – they are listed in alphabetical order. In the dictionary Mudrova search is organized on the contrary, in the last line.
If you are unable to read the Chinese character using dictionaries, the Internet to find lists of popular characters – for example, favorable characters on the website http://www.magicfengshui.ru/ieroglif.html. If your character is written on the souvenir as wishes, there is a high probability that you will find it in this list.
Advice 3: How to learn to write Japanese characters
For writing Japanese characters is required to comply with certain rules. First, to understand the sequence in which features are written in the sign. Secondly, you need to start with the most simple characters.
General information about Japanese characters
To learn to write Japanese characters, you must first start with the simple signs. These are numerals. Tracing the kanji that denote numbers, is very simple and requires no effort. Kanji is the characters, to like is translated as the letters of the Han dynasty. The basis of kanji are Chinese characters, but calligraphy Japanese kanji are more simple rules. When teaching children in Japanese schools kanji is divided into large lists: Keiko kanji and kanji Joya. Just characters that belong to Keiko kanji taught in primary school and they are much easier to write than those that take place in high school. It can be used.
Modern Japanese letter, it is customary to position the characters, as in the European writing. But still you can find traditional Japanese writing system of hieroglyphs in columns, where the kanji are written from top to bottom and from right to left. For example, in Newspapers and literature. The modern method of writing widely used in scientific papers on Japanese web pages.
Rules for writing kanji
The first thing that you need to write a character - a good look at him. The characters consist of vertical, diagonal, inclined and horizontal features. These basic features form the other main elements such as cross, corner and square lines. Horizontal line in the kanji is written first if there are several characters, they are written from left to right and top to bottom. The horizontal lines will draw the vertical strictly top-down. Corner features are written after the vertical and in one go. Cross-lines, first draw a horizontal line, then vertical. The order of the diagonal faces damn it: first left, then right.
In addition, you need to know the order in which features are written in kanji, you must memorize a number of rules that are not related to order of writing kanji, but no less. First, during the hanzi to sit up straight, feet stay flat on the floor, hands nothing should interfere. Under the sheet, on which are written the characters should not be uneven. Every detail of the kanji have to be drawn continuously from the paper. The art of writing characters requires perseverance and time. To learn to write Japanese characters you need to practice a lot to get hand, to automate.
Correct and beautiful handwriting of Japanese characters is very much appreciated, as in Japan and China. Because of the precision drawn kanji depends on its sense and understanding of the written text.