Advice 1: How to determine cast iron

Cast iron and steel are two kinds of iron compounds with carbon – find wide application in various industries. But sometimes there is a need to distinguish iron from steel, for example, in the repair, because these alloys have different properties and therefore require different treatment.
Instruction
1
You can determine the iron density of the product. Weigh the object and then determine what volume of water it displaces. This way you will calculate the density and make a conclusion about the material. The fact that the density of the major brands of steel is in the range of 7.7 – 7.9 grams/cm^3, density is the most common grey cast iron does not exceed 7.2 g/cm^3. But this method is unreliable, since there are more white cast iron, the density of which is between a 7.6 and 7.8 grams/cm^3. Therefore, it can be applied just as firmly convinced that the product is made either of steel or gray cast iron.
2
Can use a magnet. For cast iron it sticks worse than steel. But this method cannot be called accurate, as some types of alloy steels with a high content of Nickel do not attract a magnet.
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It is therefore safer to use one of the following methods: to determine the cast iron using the resulting sawdust or shavings, but also with grinding machines. Take a file with a small notch, spend a few times on the surface of the product. Try to collect formed tiny sawdust on a sheet of paper. Fold the paper in half and vigorously RUB. If it is cast iron, the paper will be visibly soiled, if it is steel, traces almost does not remain.
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May also slightly the product drill a thin drill (of course, not from the front side, and in a place that is not conspicuous). This produces a small amount of chips. In her appearance and characteristics, it is possible to accurately determine from what material the item. If it's cast iron – the chips literally poured out of you in his fingers, turning to dust. If the steel shavings will look like a twisted spring and may even scratch your fingers if you try to break her.
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Finally, you can judge the material by size, shape and color of sparks produced when the edge of the product is carried out with a grinding machine. The more carbon content, the brighter and stronger the sheaf of light-yellow sparks. And the content of carbon in iron is much higher than in steel.
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If there is any doubt – better to use as references the pieces of iron and steel, and to compare the shape and properties of sawdust (wood shavings), and the resulting sparks that is obtained by processing these samples.

Advice 2: How to make cast iron

With unabated ardor the debate continues about whether it is possible to brew cast iron? How reliable is this weld? Experience inquisitive and persistent, "DIY" shows that to eliminate the crack in the cauldron, to repair the furnace grate with a gas or electric welding is possible.
You will need
• Gas torch or electric welder, welding rods, electrodes.
Instruction
1
Use gas welding – one of the most reliable methods of welding cast iron. Gas welding allows you to weld metal as close in its properties to the main.
Lead gas welding cast ironand better with a preheat. Clean edge welded material from rust and dirt with a wire brush, remove all traces of oil .
As welding rods use cast ironstar rods with a length of 40-70 cm bar Diameter should be equal to half the thickness of the base metal.
2
You can cook by electric welding special electrodes for cast iron. It is important to keep in mind that in this case must use the welding machine with output DC, not AC.
Electrodes for cast ironhave have some modifications, because the cast iron also varies by species: gray, white, malleable. The best results you can get if you use the electrodes CBS – 4 with carbidopa elements in the coating (up to 70% of vanadium).
First napravite cushions facing electrodes with a diameter of 3mm, a current 65 – 80A. Weld intermittently to detail does not get warm above +100 degrees C. After that, apply a seam with electrodes of larger diameter, while also giving the parts to overheat.
3
If there are no special electrodes, take a common electrode for welding steels, wrap it in copper wire and cook as usual. Pre detail is better to warm up in the oven to 400 degrees. Upon completion of the welded part cool along with the oven. In this case, there will be cracks and stresses.
4
Another way is to weld on studs. Laterally along the line of the seam, drill the holes, cut them with the thread and screw studs of low carbon steel. First scald all pins separately, then weld them together. Then put the lining seams.
Welding lead with breaks, avoiding overheating of the part.
Note
When welding cast iron it is necessary to change the welding cable in some places – from earth to holder and holder to the ground.
Also can solder cast iron using gas welding blowpipe, with borax as an oxidizer and non-ferrous metals – brass, bronze, copper.

Advice 3: Where to use cast iron

Cast iron is an alloy of iron with small amounts of carbon. Sometimes this composition is also administered alloying element, giving it a high consumer quality. The metal is a primary material for ferrous metallurgy. It is used not only in the production of steel and machinery, but also for the manufacture of products.
Instruction
1
Cast iron has very valuable qualities, making it suitable for the manufacture of products of different purposes. This metal is cheap and excellent casting properties. He also has high hardness and strength. The cast for this reason is widely used where the desired product shapes, capable of withstanding serious loads. It applies, for example, for the manufacture of machine bases and parts of the body of a machine.
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In engineering widely used so-called gray cast iron, having in its composition graphite. The products from this metal is almost not sensitive to the impact stress and absorb vibrations occurring in the vibration of machines and mechanisms. Grey cast iron is good for the manufacture of critical parts, for example, bushings and machine beds.
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The irreplaceable cast iron in the automotive industry. It is durable and abrasion resistant cylinder blocks for engines. For greater reliability in the composition of the metal also include special graphite additive. Such an improved cast iron can be used in the production of crankshafts of diesels.
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Metal, in which the carbon is in a bound state, goes to the manufacture of parts, capable of operating in conditions of high friction. This iron makes high-quality brake pads, and rolls for papermaking or milling machines.
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Their scope is, and ductile iron. He has excellent damping ability even in comparison with steel and works great at low temperatures. This modification of the metal used in the manufacture of critical parts of tractors and cars, who will work in harsh climatic conditions.
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Another area of application of cast iron – production of sanitary products. This metal is used in pipes, radiators, fittings, kitchen sinks and sinks. Still great demand for baths of cast iron, which have high strength, reliability, practicality and durability. These products can serve as homes for several decades, while maintaining an original appearance and not needing to be replaced.
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Widely use cast iron to perform the art products. Most of the embankments of Saint-Petersburg, for example, is decorated with elements of cast iron. In the city on the Neva was not unusual to see cast openwork gate and fancy fences made of this metal. There are also cast-iron monuments.
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