Advice 1: How to make the effect of old paper

Old paper is an excellent material for creativity. It can be used for scrapbooking, decorating albums and photos in a retro style, making ancient scrolls and maps. There are several methods of artificial aging of paper at home.
How to make the effect of old paper
You will need
  • - black tea;
  • - instant coffee;
  • - hot water;
  • - milk;
  • - iron
  • - matches or lighter.
One of the most popular techniques – soaking the paper in tea leaves. Pour 5 tablespoons of black leaf tea Cup of boiling water and let it infuse. Instead of tea you can use coffee in the ratio of 10 teaspoons instant coffee per Cup of boiled water. The deeper the solution, the darker the paper. Strain the infusion and pour the liquid into the tub. Lower back is a sheet of paper. It can be pre-crumple for giving your work greater historical accuracy. After five minutes, remove the paper from the bath and put to dry on a flat surface. To speed up the drying process, the sheet is recommended to iron iron.
Can be used to age paper with milk. To do this, apply the milk on the sheet on both sides with a cotton swab. After it dries a bit, gently iron it with the iron. If you hold received the paper over a hot stove, you can get very colourful markings, which will give your product a special chic. Working with an open flame, be aware of safety precautions.
Very effective, but a longer time is a method of aging paper the sun. For this position the required number of opposite leaves of direct sunlight. After a few days your paper will naturally turn yellow and will take the form of a rare document.
Once you got the old paper, you can make it even more believable. The sheet spread in several places granules of coffee. It will make the color uneven. Then carefully singe the edges with a match or lighter.
If desired, any of the proposed options can be used to age the book. For this it is necessary to put each page in a solution and iron her iron. Only after complete drying of the sheet, you can proceed to the next. The process will take quite a long time, but you can become the owner of rare book editions.

Advice 2: How to make a whistle out of paper

What do the whistles. This fun craft can be built from plastic and from wood and from other natural and artificial materials. It is sure to delight children and help adults remember their own childhood. Of paper also makes a very loud whistle.
How to make a whistle out of paper
You will need
  • -thin durable paper;
  • -plastic whistle;
  • -transparent tape.
Take the paper, which should be very thin and, moreover, strong enough. To create this very simple whistle is suitable, for example, a piece of paper from under candy, packaging of other products. Please note that to stretch the material should not.
The edges of the paper tightly squeeze both hands between the index and big fingers. Pull a candy wrapper or a piece of paper very much. Hold it to your mouth and blow. If the whistle did not immediately work, then try several times to change the position of the lips and experiment with the tension of the paper. In the end, you will definitely find a suitable option. If the sound is not too loud, then thoroughly wet the lips with water and try to blow again. This is the easiest way paper whistle.
Also paper you can build a holiday version of such a "tool". To do this, take a plastic whistle with a wide opening on the side opposite the one in which whistle. * Check that there is air in it the middle – it is important that the air flow could easily unroll the paper, which you attach to the base. Pick up the appropriate sheet – it should be thick and fairly thin paper that can withstand a constant process of expanding and collapsing. For example, suitable material, identical to the one used to make candy wrappers for candy. It is desirable that it was quite bright and colourful, after all you are doing is whistle for use at festival or party.
Of paper make a tube with a diameter similar to the diameter size of the whistle, and a length of about 15 centimeters. Glue it and wait until it thoroughly dries. Put the tube on a plastic base and attach it with transparent tape. Take the "snail" until the whistle. With the whistle this snorkel will unfold.

Advice 3: How to make a hat out of paper

Who said hats have to serve you for years? To make different hats and caps are not bothered, they can be handy to use on occasion 1-2 times. For example, a homemade paper hat you can wear in the summer at the cottage or make it a element of carnival costume.
How to make a hat out of paper
You will need
  • - the tape;
  • paper;
  • - PVA glue.
Using a measuring tape and measure the circumference of your head at the level of the edge of the cap. Ask someone to help you to make a measurement in order to strictly position the tape parallel to the floor.
Lift the tape 2.5 cm above the previous level, the result of the girth of the record. Make the same measurements, each time raising inch of the same distance, all the results are capture on paper.
On a sheet of paper draw a rectangle. Its length must be equal to the sum of 3 cm from the larger circumference of head, width 6 cm Fold the strip three times horizontally. The fold lines smooth out with your finger. Step back from each edge of the strips to 1.5 cm, mark this distance and lubricate it with white glue. Align the ends, wait until the glue dries. Put the Hoop on the head.
Measuring tape measure the distance from the edge of the wrap on the face to the edge at the nape. Guide such measurements, each time shifting the tape to the right by 2.5 cm All results record.
Make strips of paper for each horizontal level cap. Their length should match the circumference of your head at a certain height given an allowance of 3cm. Width of all pieces of the same – 6 see Turn each of them along, as the detail for the rim base, then glue into a ring. Also prepare the strips according to the results of the vertical measurements (glue not necessary).
Wear a cap based on the diameter of any round object. Pick up each ring. To the underside of the bottom ring, attach a vertical strip. Thread it through all horizontal rows, and passing alternately under and over the rings. Similarly, the "weave" of the entire cap.
Visor for caps, cut out of cardboard. Measure the distance between the tips of your eyebrows. This is the width of the visor. Determine the length you desire. Parallel to the wide edge of the part draw a line, departing from the edge 3 cm, Make this part of cardboard, making notches at the same distance. The valves bend at a 90° angle, a smear of PVA and glue to the hat. The finished product is paint with acrylic paints.

Advice 4: How to calculate thermal effect

The thermal effect of a thermodynamic system appears due to chemical reactions, however, one of its characteristics is not. This value can only be determined when some conditions are met.
How to calculate thermal effect
The concept of thermal effectand is closely related to the concept of enthalpy of a thermodynamic system. This thermal energy which can be converted into heat at a certain temperature and pressure. This value characterizes the equilibrium state of the system.
Any chemical reaction is always accompanied by the absorption or release some amount of heat. In this case, the reaction refers to the impact of reagents on the system products. Thus, there is a thermal effectthat is associated with the enthalpy change of the system and its products are taking the temperature reported by the agents.
In ideal conditions, the thermal effect depends on the nature of chemical reactions. These are the conditions under which it is assumed that the system does no work other than work of expansion, and the temperature of its products and influencing the reactants are equal.
There are two types of course of the chemical reaction: isochoric (at constant volume) and Isobaric (at constant pressure). Formula thermal effectas follows:dQ = dU + PdV, where U is the energy of the system, P – pressure, V – volume.
In isochoric process PdV term vanishes because the volume doesn't change, does not expand the system, so dQ = dU. In the Isobaric process the pressure is constant and volume increases, which means that the system does work of expansion. Therefore, when calculating the thermal effectand the energy change of the system plus the energy spent on committing this work: dQ = dU + PdV.
PdV is constant, so it can be made under the sign of the differential, hence dQ = d(U + PV). The sum U + PV fully reflects the state of a thermodynamic system, and corresponds to the enthalpy. Thus, enthalpy is the energy expended in the expansion of the system.
Most commonly count thermal effect of two types of reactions is the formation of compounds and combustion. The heat of combustion or formation – table value, therefore the heat effect of reaction in the General case can be calculated by summing the warmth of all the participating substances.

Advice 5: How to make a crossbow out of paper

Sometimes in order to do something with their hands, requires much time, materials and effort. But there is a simple way to entertain your restless child and taking it for a while. For example, teach him how to make a crossbow out of paper.
How to make a crossbow out of paper

What you will need for making a crossbow

For making a paper crossbow you will need:
- 10 sheets of A4 paper;
- Scotch;
- Popsicle sticks;
- scissors;
- thick strong thread.

First, you need to make the body of the crossbow, which consists of:
- the upper arms;
- the main part, which is called a bed;
- the trigger mechanism.

Below you will learn how to make a crossbow out of paper with their hands. If you want to see this process clearly, after reading the instructions, watch the video about the making of this DIY.

Step one: make shoulders

Take four sheets of paper, fold them in half on the long side and cut along this fold. Now take one half, consisting of four cut sheets. Very carefully twist them into a tube around the pencil and secure with tape so he couldn't unwind. It is best if you first wound the tape to the middle and then the edges.

Take the remaining part of the cut paper again and twist the tube. To make it easier to do this, put the pencil away from the edge, fold the paper around the pencil and leave a bit of paper, so you can put it under the pencil. Start to twist tight and even a tube.

Next, measure four inches from Popsicle sticks and on the tubes. Now insert the wand in the tube to the mark and break off the rest of the mark. Now take two more sticks and insert in the tube with the other hand perpendicular to the sticks already inserted. Then wrap with tape the paper tube so that they are unable to break or unwind. This will also give them progenitor, so that your arrows will fly. Then bend the tube at the level of four centimeters.

Step two: master bed

You'll need five sheets of A4 paper. They need to twist the short side. So it was easier to make, again, use a pencil. Then secure the edge of the duct tape.

Now connect the shoulders and the bed. For this purpose one end of the large tube should be more flat. Then take a bent tube and attach to preplanetary the end. It is best to take one and hold them together with tape so nothing collapsed. Do not spare the tape in this place, as it is the moving part of the crossbow.
You want the thread is not hung, but rather was drawn to the shoulders of the crossbow to each other.

Pull the string, to do this, tie one end of thread to one arm of the crossbow, then Express the length from one end to the other plus two inches and attach to the second shoulder. Thus you now have a mask crossbow.

Step three: make the trigger mechanism

Pull the string down, so it formed a square, and mark this spot with a pencil. Then with a paper knife or other sharp object penetrate through a small hole is marked. It is necessary that the lower side of the slot was a little larger than the top, so the trigger had a stroke.
It is worth considering that the use of a crossbow may have a grown up child (student).

The trigger itself is made of little sticks, which insert into the slot, the top should stay a little tip, and the bottom more to you it was convenient to move him. You need to make two small tubes and keep them on top next to the trigger, to be able to insert the arrows. Insert the arrow (pencil) and verify your crossbow. Be careful: just as in archery with a crossbow needs to exercise caution to avoid injury. Before operation be sure to explain the rules for its safe use with your child.

Advice 6: How to age paper with coffee

Aged paper can be used in the decor, writing the love messages or draw a treasure map to play with friends. And to make the effect of old paper you can use regular coffee.
How to age paper with coffee
You will need
  • - sheet of thick white paper;
  • - 5-6 tablespoons of instant coffee;
  • - 2 cups of boiling water;
  • tray;
  • newspaper;
  • - the spray gun;
  • - iron.
In boiling water to dissolve coffee, then let the mixture cool to room temperature.
In the tray to pour the resulting coffee and place a sheet of paper for 1 minute. The wet, impregnated coffee paper placed on newspaper for drying.
When the paper is slightly damp, it can be grinded coffee granules, then on its surface formed small dark spots.
Dry paper you can spray with a spray bottle with coffee, then there will be divorces and smooth color transitions.
When the paper is completely dry, it acquires a rough structure, which can be corrected by iron. After this you will see the full effect of antiquity, and this paper is ready for use.
Useful advice
- brown color became more intense, it is possible to increase the dose of coffee;
- before soaking in coffee, the paper, you can pre-crush, but then it will be harder to ironed iron.
Is the advice useful?