Advice 1: How to determine fetal growth

From the very first day the baby was born in the womb, it begins to actively grow and develop. Of course, every expectant mother wants to know how many grams and inches added to its child. How to know the size of the fetus at a particular gestational age?
How to determine fetal growth
Instruction
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The most accurate method to know the growth of the baby, you can use the method of ultrasound diagnostics (sonography). During normal pregnancy ultrasound do on 12, 22 and 32 weeks. Ie it is on these test screenings, you can learn about the growth ofe and the weight of the unborn child. However, here too there are subtleties, for example, up to 20 weeks of pregnancy the growth of the fetus is measured from crown to tailbone. This is due to the fact that until about 20 weeks crumbs the legs bent at the knees, and measuring them is almost impossible. Therefore, the growth of the fetus at this period is denoted as, kopcik - parietal size or the abbreviation CTE. If you want to know the growth of your baby, look at the results of the latest ultrasound and find this abbreviation, and it will be considered the growthof om baby.
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After 20 weeks of pregnancy growth of the baby is measured from head to toe. It ranges from 26 to 52 cm depending on the period. However, ultrasound can also be wrong. There are cases when an ultrasound before birth showed the growth of the fetus, for example, 50 cm, and a baby born in the same day was 52 see Errors in the measurements can be associated with outdated equipment and inexperienced doctors, who conducted the study.
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Also to see the growth of the fetus, you can use the standard tables that contain information about the child's development during pregnancy. In these tables a great variety, you can find them, pgrowthon entering a search query. Relevant data also can be found in the literature about the pregnancy. If you are unable to learn about the growth of thee fetus on your period, you can inquire about it at the training courses for childbirth or the doctor that you are watching. However, remember that each person is different, even when he is in the belly of the mother, so standard tables can be taken only as a basis, but not the fact that your child will exactly this growthand, as it is written.

Advice 2: How to determine the size of the fetus

Scientists abroad who have conducted the research of causality of child's growth, found that it primarily depends on the growth of the father, that is, the higher the father, the higher his child. However, an important factor is living conditions (nutrition, physical activity, presence of diseases).
How to determine the size of the fetus
You will need
  • measuring tape;
  • - ultra-sound study
Instruction
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Genetic factor is one of the most important parameters determining the growth of the child. As a rule, growth in boys is due to the growth of the father or next of kin in the male line (uncles, grandparents) and the growth of girls is due to the growth of the mother and the relatives on the maternal line.
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Contact your gynecologist. Parameters which can determine fetal growth: placental and obstetric estimates. If pregnancy occurs the disruption of the placenta, the fetus may develop hypoxia (oxygen starvation), leading to reduced growth and fruit development.
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When visiting the gynecologist a pregnant woman using a measuring tape and make measurements of abdominal circumference and height of standing of bottom of uterus. Midwives in determining fruit size (large, small, normal) using several formulas, including: abdominal circumference (cm) multiplied by the height of standing of bottom of uterus (cm). However, the above formula is considered to be the easiest, but not the most accurate since it does not take into account the thickness of subcutaneous fat in pregnant women.
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Contact the experts for carrying out an ultrasound. Using ultrasound to determine fetal size by measuring several parameters: kopchik-parietal (set to the date of the last menstrual period), bi-parietal (size between the right and left sides of the head), hip length (measurement of the longest bone of the body – the femur – reflects the length of the fruit, the length of the thigh, you can determine the duration of pregnancy), etc., if necessary, the doctor will conduct additional measurements.
Note
In addition to the genetic factors, on the size of the fetus affects the nutrition of the future mother, the presence of diabetes, the insufficient production of thyroid hormones, delayed pregnancy, fetoplacental insufficiency, syndrome of intrauterine delay development of the fetus, bad habits and chronic diseases of the mother and her age (if she is less than 15 years).
Useful advice
If a pregnant woman has a big belly, it is not necessary that she will have a big baby. It is possible that a large abdomen due to obesity or pregnant women have polyhydramnios.

Advice 3: How to know the size of the fetus

Determination of the size of the fetus during pregnancy – a necessary procedure performed by a gynecologist. This is done in order to evaluate the possibility of participation of the child in the process of labor.
How to know the size of the fetus
You will need
  • - consultation of the gynecologist;
  • - Fetal ultrasound
Instruction
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Contact your gynecologist. He will measure your belly from the pubic bone to the top part of the uterus. The resulting value is called the fundic size. This way you can accurately determine what will be the baby big or very small. Midwives, determining the size of the fetus (normal, large, small) use several formulas, one of which is abdominal circumference (in cm) is multiplied by the height of the uterus (in cm).
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In addition, after you will be on the account in female consultation, your doctor will certainly check the condition of the placenta, which will also be judged on the size of the fetus. Due to improper activity of the placental unit may develop hypoxia, which leads to slow development and growth of the fetus and require medical intervention.
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Pass ultrasound examination of the fetus, it much more accurately defines the size of the child. Scientists hundreds of times the ultrasound was conducted at different stages of pregnancy, the purpose of which were: the definition of the size of the fetus and calculating the estimated average size of baby at each week of pregnancy. The resulting measurement graphs of the average weight are considered the "gold standard", which determines a small child or large.
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Consider the genetic factor. Usually, the growth of a boy driven by the growth of his father or close relatives (uncle, grandfather), on the growth of girls influences the growth of the mother and the nearest relatives on the maternal side.
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Take into account that the growth and size of the fetus – not quite the same thing. To determine the size of a child can be after one ultrasound. The doctor will examine the fruit, will produce relevant measurements and compare their results with averages. To establish how the baby grows, you need to do ultrasound examination at least twice, with an interval of not less than two to three weeks.
Useful advice
Remember that each pregnancy is individual. And if the fetus has any specifics, that's not a reason to panic. Pass additional tests, refer to another specialist.

Advice 4: How to determine the size brace

Bandage worn during pregnancy more mothers and grandmothers. And not surprisingly, it greatly facilitates the woman's life, reduces strain on the spine and internal organs, prevents the appearance of stretch marks, relieves lower back pain. But these functions are capable of performing only the correct brace.
How to determine the size brace
Instruction
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Bandage is recommended to wear, starting from 4-5 months of pregnancy when there is active growth of the fetus. But to spend all day in, it is recommended to take breaks for 30-40 minutes every 3-4 hours.
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There are prenatal, postnatal and combination bands. Wearing prenatal bandage is particularly helpful to women who lead an active lifestyle during pregnancy, a lot of time on your feet or have diseases of the spine, pain in the back. It is also recommended during the second pregnancy when the muscles of the abdominal wall become weaker.
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Postpartum bandage is chosen together with your doctor because there are contraindications to wearing. It is not recommended to use a brace for women after a caesarean section, suffering from diseases of the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and skin diseases. Combined bandage can be used both before birth and after.
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Any of these tires should be matched for size. Only in this case the benefits will be tangible. To determine its size, measure the circumference of hips under the belly. To select postpartum brace measure circumference directly on the hips after birth.
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It is necessary to consider that different manufacturers of underwear there are different sized mesh. Sometimes they focus not only on hips, but the waist and also height and weight of a woman or clothes size. Therefore, if you decide to get a bandage, carefully consider the size chart which will be indicated on the packaging.
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Better, of course, if you measured the brace directly when buying. Then you will be sure that it is perfect. If you decided to buy postpartum bandage, then navigate you only have tables for the size of the manufacturer.

Advice 5: How to determine foetal hypoxia

Hypoxia of the fetus is insufficient flow to the fetus of oxygen, associated with diseases of the mother, disorders of uterine-placental or umbilical blood flow, diseases of the child. Diagnosis of hypoxia is based on the direct assessment of the fetus and analysis of the results of indirect methods.
How to determine foetal hypoxia
You will need
  • - monitoring perturbations of the fetus;
  • listen to heartbeats with a stethoscope;
  • - cardiotocography;
  • - doplerometriya;
  • - amnioscopy.
Instruction
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If you notice changes in motor activity of the fetus, it may be a sign of hypoxia. In the initial stage you can detect a troubled child's behavior, reflected in the frequency and strength of its perturbations. With the acute shortage of oxygen and buildup of hypoxia movements of the fetus begin to weaken.
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Definitely watching you tell your doctor about changes of the perturbations. It with a stethoscope listens to the heartbeat of the fetus, assess heart rate, rhythm, presence of noise. However, this method can identify only gross changes, as often occurs in acute hypoxia. The doctor may suspect chronic hypoxia on circumstantial evidence, such as reducing the height of standing of bottom of uterus, associated with growth retardation of the fetusand oligohydramnios.
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If you suspect hypoxia will be assigned a cardiotocography (CTG). This study successfully carried out in outpatient conditions. With elastic straps on a pregnant belly attached ultrasonic sensor, fixed in place listening to the heartbeat of the fetus. Diagnostic value has the frequency of acceleration and deceleration of heart rate. If increased heart rate is a response to the movement of the fetus or uterine contractions (at least 5 per 30 minutes), then we can talk about the prosperous condition of the fetus. To do this, in the framework of the CTG is non-stressful test, the essence of which consists in the appearance of ucashenie heartbeat in response to movement or contractions of the uterus. If the fetus does not give any reaction, this suggests hypoxia.
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With the help of Doppler imaging is the study of blood flow in the vessels of the uterus, umbilical cord and fetus. If a disturbance in the circulation, it is possible to estimate the severity of hypoxia and to take measures for the further successful course of pregnancy. The first study is recommended at 16-20 weeks of pregnancy, since from this period of possible pathological disorders of the blood flow.
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For diagnosis of hypoxia in a child are estimated amniotic fluid. About oxygen deficiency indicates the presence of amniotic fluid meconium - the feces of the fetus. Falling into the water due to the poor circulation in the intestine due to hypoxia. Relaxes the sphincter of the rectum of the fetus and the amniotic fluid meconium gets. With the help of amnioscopy are inspecting the optical device through the cervical canal and amniotic fluid. This method is often used prior to delivery.

Advice 6: How to determine fetal abnormalities

Early diagnosis of pathologies of the fetus with each passing year becomes more and more reliable. It is carried out as a public women's consultation in the framework of compulsory health insurance and private clinics. When such risk factors as hereditary diseases among relatives or age pregnant over forty years, the question of the exclusion of the presence of pathologies of a fetus should be treated particularly seriously.
How to determine fetal abnormalities
You will need
  • - regular supervision by a obstetrician-gynecologist.
Instruction
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During pregnancy try time pass ultrasonography (us). At a minimum we recommend three treatments during pregnancy at 11-14, 20-24 and 30-34 weeks obstetric. There are several signs, which may indicate the presence of chromosomal pathology in fetus: increased nuchal translucency, fast or slow heartbeat, abnormalities in the structure of the heart, too small size of the maxillary bones, and many others. These signs do not mean that the fetus has a genetic disorder, but those results ultrasound is attentive to the issue of appointment of additional surveys.
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Simultaneously with the ultrasound in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy pass a screening blood tests. In the course of these studies takes into account the levels of various factors in serum and other indicators, such as maternal age, presence of harmful habits, weight, indicators ultrasound of the fetus. From the lab results come in the form of calculated probability of the presence of certain abnormalities in the genome. At high values, discuss with your doctor the need for surveys with greater accuracy.
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If you suspect the presence of abnormalities of the fetus , you can go through the procedure of chorionic villus sampling, amnio -, or cordocentesis. All these tests aimed at the direct study of the chromosomes of the fetus and detection of certain genetic abnormalities. The accuracy of this procedure is quite high. The fence material for analysis occurs in the fetus, from the amniotic SAC (amniocentesis), umbilical cord (cordocentesis) or villus of the placenta. Because it anyway there is damage to the membranes of the embryo, increases the risk of spontaneous abortion: it should take into account when making decisions.
Note
In these studies, like ultrasound and screening for markers of blood serum, there is a high probability of error, therefore it is recommended to repeat the examination. It is advisable to use the services of different labs and specialists. Anyway, to conclude the presence of abnormalities in the fetus only at these indicators, it is not necessary.
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