## Prerequisites discoveries

To the 15th century in Europe, the prerequisites to sailors to explore the seas. There were caravels – ships that are designed specifically for the movement of European explorers. Booming techniques: the 15th century perfected the compass and nautical charts. This gave the opportunity to discover and explore new lands.

In 1492-1494 gg Christopher Columbus discovered the Bahamas, Large and Small Antilles. By 1494 he got to America. Around the same time – in 1499-1501 – Amerigo Vespucci sailed to the coast of Brazil. Another famous traveler Vasco da Gama – opens at the turn of 15-16th century.in. continuous sea route from Western Europe to India. This contributed to the development of trade, which in the 15-16 century played a pivotal role in the life of every state. X. Ponce de Leon, F. Cordova, X. Grijalva opened the Gulf of La Plata, the Peninsula of Florida and Yucatan.

## The most important event

The most important event in the early 16th century resulted in the circumnavigation of Fernand Magellan. Thus it was possible to confirm the view that the earth has a spherical shape. Later, in honor of Magellan named the Strait, through which passed his way. In the 16th century by Spanish travelers were almost completely discovered and explored South and North America. Later, at the end of the same century, a voyage round the world made Francis Drake.

Do not lag behind European and Russian seafarers. In the 16-17 centuries is rapidly progressing the development of Siberia and the Far East. The names of the discoverers I. Moskvitina E. and Khabarova. Open basins of the rivers Lena and Yenisei. Expedition F. Popov and S. Dezhnev sailed from the Arctic to the Pacific ocean. Thus it was possible to prove that Asia and America never joined.

During the Great geographical discoveries on the map there are many new lands. However, it still remained a "white spot". For example, the Australian land was studied much later. Made in 15-17 centuries of discovery allowed for the development of other Sciences, e.g. botany. The Europeans got the opportunity to meet with new crops – tomatoes, potatoes, which later became used universally. We can say that the Great geographical discoveries marked the beginning of capitalist relations, because it is this trade has become global.

# Advice 2: How to determine the coordinates of the point

In order to uniquely determine the location of

**points**in space, was coined by geographical**coordinates**. With this system, you can always find the any point on the globe, on the map or on the ground.You will need

- - map or globe;
- - the electronic map;
- - satellite Navigator.

Instruction

1

In order to determine the geographic

**coordinates****of points**, draw a map showing meridians and Parallels. Remember, the more frequency of these lines and more map, the better you will be able to determine the latitude and longitude that make up any**coordinates**.2

To find latitude, use horizontal lines drawn on the map – parallel. Determine a parallel is your point, and find its value in degrees. Around each of the horizontal parallel is the symbol in degrees (left and right). If the point is located directly on it boldly concludes that its breadth equal to this value.

3

If the selected location lies between two Parallels that are listed on the map, determine the latitude closest Parallels and add to it the length of the arc in degrees to

**the point**. The length of the arc count with the help of a protractor or around the eyes. For example, if a point midway between the Parallels 30º and 35º, then its breadth is equal to 32.5 º. Put the symbol N, if the point is located above the equator (North latitude) and the symbol S, if it is under the equator (South latitude).4

To determine longitude you will help the meridians – vertical lines on the map. Find Meridian closest on the map to your point and see its

**coordinates are**listed at the top and bottom (in degrees). Measure with a protractor or estimate by eye the length of the arc between the Meridian and the selected place. Add the obtained distance in degrees to the longitude value and get the longitude of the required**point**.5

Computer with Internet access or electronic card will also help to determine

**the coordinates**of the place. To do this, open the map, such as http://maps.rambler.ru/, then type in the top window the name of the location or select it on the map using the cursor (located in the center of the screen). Look in the lower left corner indicate the exact**coordinates****of the point**.6

To determine

**the coordinates**on the terrain, bring a satellite navigation system. Here you will be able to determine**the coordinates**of its location and geographic**coordinates**of any**point**indicated on the map.# Advice 3: How to convert geographic coordinates

**The coordinates**of the object can be recorded in several ways: in degrees, minutes, and seconds (the old method), in degrees and minutes with decimal fraction, and in degrees with a decimal fraction (the modern version). Now used all three ways, creating a need for translation of geographic coordinates from one system to another.

You will need

- coordinates in a form of writing;
- calculator;
- - the program for translation and the computer.

Instruction

1

If you are given the coordinates in degrees with decimal fraction, convert them to degrees and minutes. First calculate the latitude. For this, the number before the comma or the point of the rewrite, it will be a number of degrees. Then the fractional part of the move to degrees: multiply it by 60. The resulting number will be the minute your latitude. Perform the same operation with the longitude of the point. Note the resulting coordinates are 12°45.32 N, 31°51.06'E.

2

The same coordinates can be converted to degrees with minutes and seconds. The whole number of degrees remains the same. First, count the number of minutes for this number after the decimal point and multiply by 60. Rewrite the integer part of the result, and fractional-n perform the same operation – multiply it by 60. In the end, you will get the value of degrees, minutes and seconds with a fractional part. Record the result in the form of 22°15'20.9916"N, 17°35'3.6338"E.

3

If you, on the contrary, it is necessary to convert the coordinates from degrees to decimals, we proceed as follows. Divide the minutes specified in decimal, 60 in the result you will get the fractional part of a number of degrees. Record the result in the form 55.755831°, 37.617673°.

4

To transform coordinates with minutes and seconds to decimal, do the following. Start from the end: first, put the seconds into minutes by dividing their value by 60. Record the result in the form of degrees and minutes specified with a decimal fraction. Then turn the minutes into degrees, also dividing them by 60. As a result, you will receive the desired coordinate value in degrees.

5

If you need to translate coordinates from one system to another frequently, use the special software they can download to a computer or to use online.