Microprocessor called the Central unit of a personal computer, which is used to perform logical and arithmetic operations on information, for processing and transmission of data and to control the operation of all machine units.
The microprocessor executed in one or more interconnected semiconductor crystals integrated circuits. Consists of control circuits, adders, registers, counters, teams and very fast memory small volume.
The microprocessor implements the following major functions:
- decoding and reading the data from the main memory
- receiving commands to and read data from registers of the adapters, external devices
- data processing, recording them in the main memory and the entry in the registers of the adapters, external devices
- formation of control signals other units of the computer
From the history
For a long time CPUs were built from separate chips small or medium integration, containing one to a few hundred transistors. Despite humble beginnings, a continuous increase in the complexity of microprocessors has led to the complete obsolescence of other forms of computers.
The first 4-bit microprocessor appeared in the 1970-ies, and the use of it is found in an electronic calculator. Calculators used BCD arithmetic. Soon, microprocessors began to be embedded in other devices, such as printers, terminals and various automation.
In the mid 1970-ies already 8-bit microprocessors addressing in 16-bit allowed us to create the first home microcomputers.
Currently, one or several microprocessors are used as computing elements are literally in everything - from mobile devices and small embedded systems to large supercomputers and mainframes.
If you look around, the microprocessors are literally everywhere: in electronic watches, mobile phones, game consoles, handheld electronic games, in modern microwave ovens, washing machines, players, CDs, calculators. Even a modern car filled with microprocessors, not to mention ships, airplanes, trains, etc.
"Microprocessor" and "processor"
Some authors have referred to the microprocessors of the actual device implemented strictly on a single chip. This definition is at odds with academic sources and commercial practices. For example, microprocessors such as AMD and Intel, and in buildings of type Pentium II and the SECC have been implemented on multiple chips.
Due to the very small distribution of processors, which are microprocessors, in everyday practice, the terms "microprocessor" and "processor" are almost equivalent.