Advice 1: What is the local anesthesia

Local anesthesia, or, more correctly, local anesthesia is an artificially - induced inhibition of pain sensitivity in limited areas of the body, with preservation of consciousness. Local anesthesia is typically used for minor surgical interventions and diagnostic studies.
What is the local anesthesia

Where to apply local anesthesia



The range of medical interventions that are performed under local anesthesia, wide enough is the treatment or removal of teeth, lancing boils, bruises, surgery on the nose and throat, eye surgery, urography, gastroscopy, sensing, gynecological surgery. In addition, for the elderly and patients with certain diseases local anesthesia is the only method of anesthesia.

Types of local anesthetic



Terminal (surface) anesthesia - receptor blockade. This is the most simple method, it is used in ophthalmology, in dentistry, to perform endoscopic examinations of the gastrointestinal tract. Surface anesthesia is applied anesthetics to mucous membranes or skin.

Infiltration anesthesia is the blockade of small nerves and receptors. This method is used for small non-traumatic operations. The drug is administered in the soft tissue in the area of surgical intervention, resulting in a blocked conduction of nerve impulses.

Conduction (regional) anesthesia is the blockade of nerves and nerve plexus. In this method, anesthetic is injected close to a nerve ganglion, or peripheral nerve trunk in the area of the forthcoming operation. To regional anaesthesia are spinal (spinal) and epidural.

Spinal anesthesia is based on the introduction of the drug into the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord. Due to this temporarily lost sensitivity of organs located below the place of injection. This anesthesia is used during surgical interventions on the stomach, bowels, liver, spleen, pelvic organs and lower extremities.

When epidural anesthetics are administered through a special catheter in the epidural space of the spine. This anesthesia is used when analgesia of the chest, abdomen, legs and groin, often used in childbirth. Advantages of epidural anesthesia are the use of small doses of drugs and rare side effects.

Contraindications to local anesthesia



The main contraindications of mental disorders patient intolerance to local anesthetics, tissue damage, interfere with infiltration anesthesia, internal bleeding. Have epidural and spinal anesthesia is a list of limitations longer is low blood pressure, poor blood clotting, severe spinal deformity, inflammation at the place of intended puncture, cardiac arrhythmias, Central nervous system.

Complications of local anesthesia



Complications from local anesthesia are extremely rare. Possible agitation, dizziness, hand tremors, allergic reactions, weakness, sweating, bradycardia, decrease of arterial pressure. To avoid complications, helps to elucidate the tolerability of drugs in a preliminary conversation with the patient, and careful observance of technology of anesthesia and dosages of anesthetics.

Advice 2 : What are the different types of anesthesia

Anesthesia is a temporary condition caused by the special medical drugs, which interferes with the transmission of nerve impulses and is "disabled" the feeling of pain. There are 2 basic principle different types of anesthesia: General and local.
What are the different types of anesthesia

General anesthesia




A mandatory condition of General anesthesia is a patient's dream. In the method of administering anesthetic General anesthesia can be inhaled (endotracheal, mask), intravenous, combined.

Inhalation anesthesia is a type of General anesthesia, in which drugs are anesthetics ("volatile", volatile liquids or gases) enter the body through the respiratory tract.

When carrying out mask anesthesia, the patient is breathing independently or gaseous drug mixture is supplied through a special mask under pressure. Used infrequently because of the high risk reflex respiratory arrest.

Under endotracheal anesthesia, a special tube is introduced into the trachea through which the drug enters the respiratory tract. It is commonly used when conducting prolonged operations on the head and neck in cases when breathing is difficult (the position of the body on its side, stomach). The risk of aspiration into the respiratory tract of the stomach contents is very low.

Non-inhalation anesthetics are administered intravenously or intramuscularly. Apply for operations lasting no more than 30 minutes, because it is a narcotic drug when administered intravenously, acts short-lived.


Local anesthesia




Local anesthesia is performed in cases where it is necessary to anesthetize a specific area of the body (e.g. limb) for the implementation on this site of surgical intervention. After the drug is introduced, there is a violation of nervous impulse. The consciousness of the patient is saved, he is able to breathe on his own.

Distinguish:

terminal (surface) anesthetic is applied to the surface of the skin or mucous membranes;
- infiltration, the substance is administered with a fine needle under the skin;
- regional, the medication is injected close to the nerve trunk.

In turn, regional anesthesia can be:

and wire in which the anesthetic is injected closer to the nerve plexus, host, or peripheral nerve.
- spinal (injection of a drug into the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord);
- epidural (anesthetic injected through a catheter into the epidural space);
- intravascular or intraosseous.


Combined and combined anesthesia




Combined anesthesia is carried out using simultaneous or consecutive application of methods of one kind of anesthesia (inhalation and non-inhalation). For example, first hold introductory anesthesia with different drugs (sodium thiopental), and then proceed to intubation and basic anesthesia (neuroleptanalgesia or inhalation anesthetics). This kind of anesthesia is the most safe.

In the case of application of combined anesthesia using both local and General anesthesia. With the help of local anesthesia can reduce or eliminate the occurrence of side effects of drugs, postoperative period proceeds more favorably.

Advice 3 : What is the local anesthesia

Local anesthesia, or, more correctly, local anesthesia is an artificially - induced inhibition of pain sensitivity in limited areas of the body, with preservation of consciousness. Local anesthesia is typically used for minor surgical interventions and diagnostic studies.
What is the local anesthesia

Where to apply local anesthesia



The range of medical interventions that are performed under local anesthesia, wide enough is the treatment or removal of teeth, lancing boils, bruises, surgery on the nose and throat, eye surgery, urography, gastroscopy, sensing, gynecological surgery. In addition, for the elderly and patients with certain diseases local anesthesia is the only method of anesthesia.

Types of local anesthetic



Terminal (surface) anesthesia - receptor blockade. This is the most simple method, it is used in ophthalmology, in dentistry, to perform endoscopic examinations of the gastrointestinal tract. Surface anesthesia is applied anesthetics to mucous membranes or skin.

Infiltration anesthesia is the blockade of small nerves and receptors. This method is used for small non-traumatic operations. The drug is administered in the soft tissue in the area of surgical intervention, resulting in a blocked conduction of nerve impulses.

Conduction (regional) anesthesia is the blockade of nerves and nerve plexus. In this method, anesthetic is injected close to a nerve ganglion, or peripheral nerve trunk in the area of the forthcoming operation. To regional anaesthesia are spinal (spinal) and epidural.

Spinal anesthesia is based on the introduction of the drug into the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord. Due to this temporarily lost sensitivity of organs located below the place of injection. This anesthesia is used during surgical interventions on the stomach, bowels, liver, spleen, pelvic organs and lower extremities.

When epidural anesthetics are administered through a special catheter in the epidural space of the spine. This anesthesia is used when analgesia of the chest, abdomen, legs and groin, often used in childbirth. Advantages of epidural anesthesia are the use of small doses of drugs and rare side effects.

Contraindications to local anesthesia



The main contraindications of mental disorders patient intolerance to local anesthetics, tissue damage, interfere with infiltration anesthesia, internal bleeding. Have epidural and spinal anesthesia is a list of limitations longer is low blood pressure, poor blood clotting, severe spinal deformity, inflammation at the place of intended puncture, cardiac arrhythmias, Central nervous system.

Complications of local anesthesia



Complications from local anesthesia are extremely rare. Possible agitation, dizziness, hand tremors, allergic reactions, weakness, sweating, bradycardia, decrease of arterial pressure. To avoid complications, helps to elucidate the tolerability of drugs in a preliminary conversation with the patient, and careful observance of technology of anesthesia and dosages of anesthetics.
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