Possible causes of ectopic pregnancy
In normal pregnancy, conception occurs in the fallopian tube where sperm and ready to fertilize the egg. Subsequently, the zygote moves into the uterus and is embedded in its mucous membrane. Sometimes the ovum fails to reach the destination and, being attached in the fallopian tube, begins to develop there. In even more rare cases, the fertilized egg is expelled from the pipe in the wrong direction and attached to the peritoneum or ovary. Thus, at the location of the ectopic pregnancy is most often a trumpet, and ventral, respectively, of ovarian.
An ectopic pregnancy is about 2-3% of all pregnancies. Survivor of such pathology are at risk, as the probability of repeat ectopic pregnancy it is particularly high.
In most cases, the cause of ectopic pregnancy is poor patency of the fallopian tubes. This problem may arise due to gynecological diseases or untreated urinary infections. Also, the cause may be anatomical features of women (hypoplasia of the uterus, too tortuous or long the fallopian tube). In addition, the fertilized egg can begin to develop in the wrong place as a result of violations of hormonal levels of a pregnant.
The risk of ectopic pregnancy increases with the following factors:
gynecological surgery, including abortions;
surgical intervention in history (may lead to formation of adhesions in the abdominal cavity);
- the presence of intrauterine device;
- use of hormonal contraceptives before the pregnancy;
- tumor formations of the uterus, including benign;
- history of infertility;
However, a third ectopic pregnancy happens for unexplained reasons. In this case, in order to prevent recurrence, physicians recommend a woman to carefully monitor their health and to minimize the impact of negative factors on the body.
Symptoms and complications of ectopic pregnancy
At first, an ectopic pregnancy does not manifest itself. She, as usual, may be accompanied by weakness, drowsiness, excessive fatigue, nausea and vomiting, enlargement and tenderness of Breasts, and increased appetite or a change in tastes. When it also observed a missed period, but pregnancy test shows a positive result.
The first warning signs can occur after 2-3 weeks after conception. This can be a nagging pain in the lower abdomen, spotting from the vagina, discomfort in the lumbar region and deterioration in General health.
The growth of the ovum fallopian tube, not designed for pregnancy, starts to pererastayut that leads to severe pain, usually on one side of the abdomen. The pain may worsen in the process of defecation, to give into the anus, and sometimes "spread" around the belly.
If ectopic pregnancy is not diagnosed, the growth of the ovum continues, which leads to the rupture of the fallopian tube and cause internal bleeding. This leads to increased pain, drop in blood pressure, unconsciousness and shock from massive blood loss. If the woman is not to provide medical assistance immediately after the incident, the probability of a lethal outcome.
The tubal rupture occurs, as a rule, in the period of 7-8 weeks. In rare cases it is possible to carry an ectopic pregnancy before 10 weeks, but it is in any case doomed, and threatens the health and lives of women.
Diagnosis and treatment of ectopic pregnancy
To prevent severe complications it is important to identify an ectopic pregnancy and offer the woman help. Diagnosis of pathology is made on the basis of complaints of the pregnant woman, blood test for HCG and ultrasound. Suspect ectopic pregnancy is possible even before the appearance of pronounced symptoms. This requires a transvaginal ultrasound one week after the menstruation. The absence of the ovum in the uterine cavity should alert the physicians. If dynamic observation it is not detected, it is likely that pregnancy has really developed, not where.
Because ectopic pregnancy can't develop and end in childbirth, after the installation of the diagnosis requires immediate interrupt. Depending on the severity of the condition of the woman is performed either laparoscopic or abdominal surgery. In the surgical process, doctors removed the ovum, and the rupture of the fallopian tube and the pipe itself. Planning a new pregnancy may not be earlier than six months after the surgery.
Advice 2 : At what time breaks the pipe ectopic pregnancy
Called ectopic pregnancy, which develops outside the uterine cavity. The embryo is implanted in the ovary, the tube or in the abdominal cavity. 99% of ectopic pregnancies develop in the fallopian tube. Most often, ectopic pregnancy ends with the rupture of the pipe, although sometimes the embryo is expelled into the abdominal cavity. In medicine known cases where abdominal pregnancy ended in chrevosechenie and birth of a healthy child. If diagnosed in a timely manner, carry out warning the break the operation, otherwise, the woman goes on the operating table with the rupture of the fallopian tube.
Cause of ectopic pregnancy is tubal obstruction. Adhesions, infections, inflammatory diseases of the female genital organs, abortion in the past – the main cause of obstruction of the pipes. In addition, the fallopian (uterine) tubes can lose their ability to contract normally, the fertilized egg moves to the uterus and gets implanted in the tube. Diseases of the uterus, in which the entrance is sealed, is also one of the common causes of tubal pregnancy. This may happen due to surgery on the uterus, abortion or difficult births in history.
Meandering, long and narrow tubes found in sexual infantilism and endocrine disorders may represent too long a distance for the fetus. He's starting to grow hairs and the further movement of the tube becomes impossible.
The fallopian tubes do not have the necessary elasticity to stretch after growing embryo. The gap occurs at the moment of greatest tension – the fabric is torn, bleeding occurs that threatens pelvioperitonitis or extensive peritonitis, depending on the break.
If the pregnancy started to develop in the ampoule, the widest part of the pipe, rupture occurs at the period of 8-9 weeks. If the embryo were implanted in the isthmus, the danger of a rupture starts from the 5th week. Sometimes a rupture does not occur and tubal pregnancy tubal abortion ends, that is, the ovum detaches and falls into the cavity of the uterus. If a woman saw a doctor and did ultrasound, tubal abortion may be perceived by her as a miscarriage. This is the most favorable development of tubal pregnancy, as the integrity of the pipes saved and serious complications were avoided.
Even if you do not plan to be observed by the obstetrician, be sure to visit the office ultrasound. Ultrasound pregnant with a term of less than 12 weeks to do any private clinic. The fertilized egg must be in the uterus, if the specialist does not see it in the uterus, probably pregnant tube. You should immediately contact a fertility clinic. Women with this conclusion, I accept without reservation.
Ectopic pregnancy the level of hormone HCG is usually lower in lab will tell you the exact value, but in the home pregnancy test can be informative. Poorly painted, hardly noticeable second stripe when the expected duration of pregnancy more than 4 weeks or when it is delayed more than 2 weeks is cause for concern. With uterine pregnancy the level of HCG doubles every day, which does not occur in the pipe.
As soon as the tube begins to stretch, the woman noted abdominal pain localized on the side of the tubal pregnancy. Pain can be pulling, cramping, to give back, lower back, shoulder. If time does not go to the doctor, there is a rupture of the pipe at this point, the woman feels a sudden sharp pain, then join the symptoms of internal and external bleeding. Pallor, weakness, cold sweats, vaginal discharge spotting. At a time neokazanii assistance can be fatal.
Modern medicine is able to save the fallopian tube due to invasive surgical interventions. Remove pipe today – an extreme measure. To minimize the risk of an ectopic pregnancy, you should plan your pregnancy and follow the doctor's instructions. A woman today has the ability to have a baby even after an ectopic pregnancy – tactics planning, selects the attending physician.