Advice 1: Like breathing the earthworm

From annelids, which include earthworms, there are no special authorities that are responsible for breathing. Gas exchange happens by diffusion of the whole body, that is, they are "breathing skin".
Like breathing the earthworm
Respiratory worms is not necessary, since the ring structure and the cylindrical form provides the optimal ratio of volume and surface area involved in the production of oxygen. Given that worms are quite little move, we can say that breathing through the skin they have enough.
However, worms have a circulatory system, in contrast to single-celled organisms and some species of insects in the blood of earthworm is dissolved hemoglobin, which is carried through the body by cutting major blood vessels in the movement of the worm. It distributes oxygen throughout the body, helps to maintain diffusion. Large vessels is one vein and one artery, so the blood vessels have worm (except for the capillaries, located under the cuticle).
As such, the skin, as in mammals, earthworm, in principle, no, there is a very thin covering of cuticle. This skin is moistened with epithelial secret, and due to its minimal thickness allows the worm to breathe. However, drying of this skin is not protected, because worms must live in a moist environment, in order to protect the skin from drying out. The oxygen previously dissolved in the water, which covers the body of the worm, and then absorbed into the blood through the capillaries. If the skin of the worm dries up, he can't get from ambient oxygen and dies.
As the earthworm goes to the surface, this system of breathing is very favorable to it – it can take for gas exchange oxygen directly from the soil. Between the particles of the earth is sufficient oxygen to provide them with the worm. During rain, the worms crawl out of the earth to the surface, this is due to the fact that the water glues the particles of the earth, and between them no air. To obtain the necessary oxygen, the worms should rise to the surface.
To check the respiration of the earthworm, you can conduct a simple experiment: a jar is filled with earth, the top is placed a few worms. After a short time the worms will bury in the ground, but if you water the ground water, they rise to the surface. Similarly breathe all annelid worms with leather the whole surface of the body.

Advice 2: How to breed earthworms

Earthworms are a very useful inhabitants of the earth, they are soil-formers. The presence of worms in the soil means that it will be very fertile, plants will be well developed, because their moves worms ventilate the soil.
Use on the palm.
You will need
  • Worms
  • The substrate
  • Box
  • Board
  • Dressing
In order to breed a rain of worms, you need to dial the first party. Worms can be found in old manure heaps, or where left last year's foliage. Also worms can meet you during the spring excavation. Got worms need to shift gently in a bucket with moist soil and then move them to the place where you plan to chervyatnike.
Another method for the production of worms is with the help of a stool. For example, in a country house, in the raspberry patch (under the branches always damp earth) you need to dig a shallow ditch, put it in moist humus compost and cover with paper or sacking. On top you need to cover the ditch wide Board. After 1-1,5 weeks in the compost will appear earthworms, which are also transferred to the chervyatnike. The optimum number of worms to divorce - about 500-1000 individuals per 1 square meter of the cultivator.
The chervyatnike best to place on a site where there is a shadow under the trees, in the barn or in the basement. It will be enough for 2 sq metres. The chervyatnike can be formed both in the ground and in the old tub or in a large wooden box. To do this, put a layer of well-moistened compost 40-50 cm as bulk bed. After that, the compost must be covered with sacking or straw and leave it for a week to remove the ammonia and the fertilizer residue dissolved.
During this time, you can collect worms for divorce. In a week you can settle the worms in the following way. Every square metre of chervyatnike in the centre is a recess in which to place the worms. Left to level the land and cover the top layer of sacking or straw. The next day, the chervyatnike need to moisturize. In the future, the chervyatnike watered just as the cucumber, warm water.
To feed the worms can food waste such as potato or other vegetable peelings, moldy bread, the remains of the tea, coffee grounds. You can also use last year's leaves, hay, fresh grass.
Worms are vegetarians, so meat waste in feeding it is better not to add. From worms do not have teeth, so food must be pre-shredded. This can be done using the grinder, and then mix well the resulting mass. The food then decomposes on the soil surface evenly.
Do not use soil chemicals in order to avoid loss of worms.
Useful advice
Definitely need to loosen the soil of chervyatnike to avoid excessive drying of the top layer and enrich the soil with oxygen.

Advice 3: How to multiply earthworms

Oddly enough, but the reproduction of earthworms is gradually turning into a very profitable business. Worms have an enormous impact on agriculture and on nature in General.
How to multiply earthworms

What good are earthworms?

Earthworms provide an invaluable service to farmers they are able to process the amount of land a hundred times greater than their weight. Thanks to their work there is a shift of the earthen mass, which leads to increased soil fertility. When it climbs up valuable soil is an important soil aeration. So the daily life of the worm has a huge impact on the soil, and consequently, on the people that are close.

If a person is engaged in agricultural increase in the number of earthworms, he often uses a variety of technologies, causing their mating. Such people usually work in the pig farms and poultry farms – earthworms are an excellent source of protein for their wards. And farmers are happy to increase the population of earthworms in their plots – they eat the remains of plants, while improving the fertile quality of the soil.

As the worms multiply?

Worms belong to a small group of hermaphrodites in nature. Ordinary earthworm for his offspring becoming and mom and dad. How is it done?

When the worm becomes sexually Mature, he possesses all the qualities associated with male individuals. If its carefully considered, on the trunk, you notice a small iron belt. It usually develops in a 32 or 37 of the body segment. It is the appearance of this band becomes a signal to other individuals about what this worm is ready to reproduce. Once in a certain area a big part of worms is getting ready to mate, each species begin to develop male testes. The pairing process looks like – a worm are two heads to each other in such a way that the testes glandular one touch of the shoulder of the other and Vice versa.

During this process begins to stand out a sticky liquid, which serves for linking partners. As soon as the seed channels of the same worm got semen other, and the exchange took place on both sides, the worms crawl in different directions.

After fertilization, the worm begin to develop ovaries (female sex organs). At this time, fertilized the belt (or clutch) starts to move up. In the area 14 of the segment are female sex cells. They also added to the belt, filled with the seminal fluid of another worm, and moved to the 10th segment. And it is here that seminal fluid enters the egg. Fertilization occurs. After that, the clutch completely goes with his master and zakolebalsya, protecting the developing eggs.
Is the advice useful?