Polycystic disease is a condition, accompanied by the formation on the ovaries multiple cysts which prevent the maturation of oocytes. The causes of polycystic may be different: stress, climate change, infectious diseases, hereditary, psychogenic and other factors, but they all cause dysfunction of the hormonal system of the woman's body and ultimately lead to infertility.
Suspected polycystic ovaries occur when irregular menstrual cycle or no menstruation, excessive owolosenie, including on the face and around the nipples, weight gain and obesity. These signs may be present together or separately. To establish the correct diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct General and gynecological examination women, ultrasound examination of the uterus and appendages, and, if necessary, a laparoscopy.
During vaginal examination the doctor can detect enlarged ovaries, normal or reduced the uterus, if ultrasound - to assess in detail the condition of the internal genital organs, and laparoscopy – to obtain full morphological descriptions and to take a biopsy of the ovaries and endometrium for histological examination. Reliable signs of polycystic ovaries are enlarged, thickened sheath, multiple fibrous growths, modified non-developing follicles, no dominant and Mature follicles.
Polycystic ovaries treated both conservative and surgical methods. The first phase involves the restoration of fat and carbohydrate metabolism, the treatment of inflammatory diseases, psychoemotional disorders and depression. This applies diet therapy, exercise therapy, physical therapy, and if necessary - antidepressants and sedatives.
In the next stage of treatment of polycystic ovaries are prescribed hormonal therapy aimed at the formation of a regular menstrual cycle, the maturation and release of eggs. Different schemes provide the application in the first phase of the cycle estrogen, and the second – progestogen for several months, clomiphene citrate, providing formation of co-dominant follicles and gonadotropins that stimulate ovulation, as well as two-component oral contraceptives with estrogen and progestogen. The effect of this treatment is quite short, as it is noted within 2-3 months after cessation of treatment.
The most successful method of diagnosis and treatment of polycystic ovaries today is laparoscopy examination of the pelvic organs through an optical instrument through the abdominal wall. During the operation, removed the damaged part of the ovaries (wedge resection), or an electrocoagulation – the surface of the ovary nadequate in several places with a needle electrode. Laparoscopy has a high efficiency: 85% women restored ovulation, normal menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Furthermore, with this surgery the risk of formation of adhesions is minimal.