Anthrax can without a doubt be called one of the most feared infectious diseases of mankind. This disease belongs to the category extremely contagious and poses a direct threat to the life of the population.
Carriers of anthrax are animals. Basically, the disease affected cattle, so in some villages with the development of farming there is a risk of outbreaks among people. Even if the diseased animal is destroyed in time, a person remains a risk of disease because spores of the infection continue to live after death of the carrier.
Anthrax spores can survive in any environment for a long time, so the cause of the outbreak could become not only the sick or deceased animal, but the old cemetery, which was not guarded properly. Such abandoned burial sites pose a serious biohazard if their condition does not meet sanitary and veterinary standards. The causative agent may at any moment to break out and cause the outbreak.
For humans, the disease often ends in death. The most severe form of anthrax – lung, when the spores get into the Airways together with air. In a favorable environment, bacteria start to rapidly multiply, releasing toxic substances. Disease begins the same as normal flu, but soon the patient's condition is rapidly deteriorating. Gradually, the bacterium causes necrotic lesions and internal bleeding. Cases of recovery from pulmonary form of anthrax is almost is not fixed. Usually death occurs within several days after infection. Fortunately, the pulmonary form of the disease is rare.
Much more often doctors are faced with the skin form of anthrax. She meets villagers who had contact with infected animals. Bacteria enter the human body through the respiratory tract, and through breaks on the skin surface. Shortly after the infection on the skin occurs a characteristic black ulcer, lymph nodes become inflamed, deteriorating overall health. According to medical statistics, in 80-90% of cases of cutaneous anthrax easily lends itself to healing. For disease treatment using strong antibiotics.
People living in large cities, out of contact with cattle are also at risk of the disease, if you buy meat from unverified sellers do not have certificates of quality of their products. They risk to buy the meat of an infected animal and to get the gastric form of the disease, swallowing bacteria that are not destroyed by heat treatment.
Advice 2: What you need to know about anthrax
Currently, epidemics do not occur, are most often isolated cases. Called disease particular bacteria Bacillus anthracis.
The source of disease is sick herbivores: cows, horses, sheep and camels.
Obtained from the patient animal's coat and skin can pose a threat to several years.
Transmission of the infection may be quite varied:
is in direct contact with the animal in the care of him,
- in the butchering and preparation of meat of a sick animal
- bacteria enter to human through broken skin or mucous membrane microtrauma,
- you can become infected by inhaling the spores of this infection.
When airborne transmission risk of infection is nearly one hundred percent.
People who have had similar illness is observed to develop a strong immune system, causing re-infection is unlikely. The latent period of the disease lasts only a few days, but can be extended to two weeks.
The disease can manifest as cutaneous and generalized forms. For skin, characterized by the fact that it is found almost95% of all cases of this disease.
On the skin and in the place subjected to the active action of the causative agent of the disease appears a small red spot. Then in a very short time this spot forms a papule that has a reddish – menoufy shade, there is local itching and a slight burning sensation in this place. Just a couple of hours there is a transformation of papules into vesicles, filled with original content quickly acquiring a bloody hue.
The next phase of development of the disease is characterized by ulcers, with raised edges, on which there is the appearance of the secondary vesicles, extending later all the stages again. As a result of their opening, there is a merging and a significant spread of the sores. After a few days, in rare cases, two weeks later, at the bottom of the wound formed a black scab, which is characterized by a rapid increase in size. In General, the size of the ulcer can be from five to ten inches. By the end of the second week occurs the separation of the eschar, the ulcer heals with scarring.
Early in the disease there is a General intoxication, fever, aches throughout the body, pain in the head.
The treatment of the disease consists of antibiotics and drugs, which reduce overall toxicity of the body. On the location of ulcer, aseptic bandage is applied.
The patient is isolated and sent to the infectious Department.