Advice 1: How do you get blood cancer

Cancer is a formidable foe, claiming the lives of many people. Modern medicine still have not fully explored the nature of occurrence of cancer. Questioned and infectious nature of malignant neoplasms.
How do you get blood cancer
Instruction
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Blood cancer, or leukemia arises in the bone marrow, which produces blood cells. However, he begins to produce large number of abnormal white blood cells or leukemia cells. They do not perform those functions that are typical of normal white blood cells, grow faster and do not stop its growth at the right time. After some time, the leukemic cells displace normal leukocytes. A person begin serious health problems: anemia, there are various of bleeding and infectious diseases. Leukemic cells can also penetrate into various organs and lymph nodes and cause pain and swelling.
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The doctors don't know what is the cause of leukemia. We only know that certain factors increase the risk of leukemia. These include: strong radioactive radiation, influencing the person, frequent contact with chemicals (e.g., workplace); chemotherapy in the treatment of other type of cancer; disorders at the genetic level; down syndrome; nicotine dependence. But most people who face these risk factors does not necessarily get leukemia. And many of the patients are not exposed to the reasons listed above.
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However, there is a theory that was developed in the 40-ies of the last century, the Russian virologist Lev Zilber. He came to the conclusion that the virus can alter the genetic basis of healthy cells and this leads to its uncontrolled division. Also, scientists have found that viral structures present in tumors only in the early stages of development. Thus, the virus only triggers the pathological process, tumor cells will multiply without his participation. Statistics says that among the carriers of these viruses to the development of malignant tumors says only a tenth of a percent. Must match too many factors to get infected with the virus develop cancer.
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Now it is known about several types of viruses are responsible for 15% of all tumors developing in humans. If we talk about cancer of the blood, then there is a virus T-cell leukemia. This is a fairly rare virus, it is transmitted through sexual contact, blood transfusion and breast feeding. This oncovirus is the cause of the disease T-cell leukemia, causing the pathological division of T-lymphocytes. However, the disease almost never occurs in Russia and in Europe, dominating in the Caribbean and in the South-Western region of Japan.
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For the successful treatment of leukemia and other cancers, the decisive factor is the timely treatment for medical help. The first signs that you can suspect yourself blood cancer include: poor blood clotting, fever, headaches, night sweats, rapid formation of bruises, swollen lymph nodes, frequent infections, loss of weight and appetite, feeling of weakness and fatigue, pain in joints and bones pain and swelling in the abdomen, enlargement of the spleen. You also need to undergo regular preventive medical examinations, including blood tests.

Advice 2: How do you get roundworm

Of parasitic diseases caused by round worms, ascariasis is one of the most common. The toxins produced by Ascaris, have a marked adverse effect on the nervous system and also cause many other disorders. To protect themselves from this contagious disease, you must know the most common paths of transmission.
How do you get roundworm
Instruction
1
Most of the infections ascariasis falls in summer and early fall is harvest season. It is the main source of the disease. The soil fall helminth eggs with the feces of animals or fertilizers. Collected and poorly washed or not washed fruits and vegetables may contain on its surface a lot of ripe eggs of Ascaris.
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No less common source of infection with Ascaris are Pets. And Pets do not have to walk on the street. Enough to walk in the footsteps of the master, who came up the street, and then lick paws or fur. Penetrating in the intestine, the eggs ripen, but ripen completely in the feces. So the time of a messy bowel movement can cause re-infection of the animal.
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Often the source of infection of ascariasis are flies. It is through the dishes, the groceries left on the table, as well as any vegetables and fruit, are bought and washed before use.
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Once in the intestine, the Mature eggs of Ascaris lose his protective shell and released from them larvae through the lining of the intestinal wall penetrate into the vein. With blood flow through various vessels through the pulmonary circulation, they enter the lungs. Next, the larvae boring through the tunnels and migrate to the bronchioles, bronchi and sputum in the mouth, where it is swallowed with saliva, and again appear in the intestines. And only re once in it, they begin to grow, becoming Mature individuals.
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With the development cycle of Ascaris associated with many symptoms. For example, the migration of the larvae in the lungs causing cough, bronchitis. The ripening of Mature individuals, absorbing nutrients and producing toxins, causing beriberi and dyspepsia. The accumulation of toxins leading to asthma, allergies, and malfunction of the nervous system.
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From the moment of penetration of eggs to development of Mature ascarids is 2-2. 5 months. The duration of life of one individual is one year. Often ascariasis occurs under the guise of other diseases that resist treatment and become chronic.

Advice 3: How can you catch chlamydiosis

Urogenital chlamydiosis is an infectious disease affecting the genitourinary system. Chlamydia is dangerous because it can cause serious complications that will lead to a number of diseases of the reproductive system in both men and women. In the end, may occur infertility. So you need to know how do people become infected with chlamydia to take precautions.
How can you catch chlamydiosis

The most common way of infection with chlamydia



In most cases, chlamydia infection occurs during unprotected (without a condom) intercourse. The causative agents are the bacteria chlamydia, which is transmitted from an infected person to a healthy one. Taking root in the walls of the epithelium, they begin to multiply. In men it affects the mucous membranes of the urethra, in women also the mucous membrane of the urethra and the wall of the channel connecting the vagina with the uterus.
If the partners engaged in unprotected anal sex will be amazed by the mucous membrane of the rectum.


In some cases, the disease may be asymptomatic, causing no unpleasant sensations in humans. But, as a rule, symptoms of chlamydia are itching and burning during urination, and pain in the groin. Women can increase pain during menstruation, and vaginal discharge acquire a yellowish tint and an unpleasant odor. Sometimes slightly increased temperature, there is weakness.

Some people having had such symptoms begin to be treated yourself. But you can't do that. You need to see a specialist, to pass all the necessary tests, and start taking prescribed medication. As a rule, carried out comprehensive treatment, including measures for increasing immunity. Also, the patient's physician must complete the course of treatment with tetracycline antibiotics and macrolides. Treatment must be carried out in both partners at the same time.

It is especially important to take the full course of treatment a pregnant woman who discovered chlamydia. Because chlamydial infection is the most common cause of many diseases of the newborn.

Can you get through everyday life



Chlamydia will quickly die outside the human body, so the infections in everyday life rather rare. But such a possibility is still there, and it should be taken into account. For example, can be transmitted using the same bath towel that you just dried them sick. Or, for example, if a girl is sleeping in the same bed with her sick mother. That's why it is not desirable that children slept with their parents.
In boys, the peculiar structure of the male reproductive system, this contamination can not occur.


Contrary to the widespread prejudice in the pool to be infected with chlamydia is nearly impossible.

Advice 4: How do you get thrush

Thrush - a very common disease that occurs both women and men. Even small children are affected by this infection. To prevent it, you need to know the causes and try to avoid them.
How do you get thrush

What is candidiasis



Candidiasis (thrush) is an infectious disease caused by the fungus Candida. This fungus is present in the microflora of each person is necessary, but in certain quantities. It is located mainly in the mucous membranes of the mouth cavity, the walls of the internal organs (intestines, stomach, lungs, etc.), the sexual organs.

The degree of localization of yeast infections are divided into superficial and visceral (affects internal organs). The second most dangerous: if left untreated, it can lead to development and diseases such as bronchitis, ulcers, etc.

Among the isolated superficial thrush oral thrush is the mucous membrane of the mouth covered with white bloom. This often occurs in small children who pull all the items in the mouth. And there is a yeast infection of the throat (lesion of the tonsils), thrush of the nail plate, yeast infections interdigital spaces and the yeast infection of the genitals, is very common in women. Men suffer from this much less, often being just a carrier of the infection.

Symptoms of this disease are white patches on the affected areas, itching, irritation, etc. With the defeat of genital discharge, sometimes quite strong, similar to cheese and with a characteristic odor.

Causes of thrush



The cause of yeast infection is a fungus. Appear or it can develop under certain circumstances. Chief among them is a strong decrease in immunity in connection with the use of antibiotics, nervous tension, stress. The cause can also be poor diet and, as a result of the breach of the intestine (dysbiosis).

Often thrush are sexually transmitted during unprotected intercourse. In men this is manifested quite rarely, he can just pass it to his partner, while remaining completely healthy.

Candidiasis can be transmitted through household items: bed linen, towel, dishes. And through food, badly washed vegetables/fruit. The perfect environment for development of fungus are common areas - bath, sauna, swimming pool.

The baby can get thrush from the mother while passing through the birth canal or when feeding.

What to do when infected with yeast infection



In case of detection of symptoms of this disease it is better to consult a doctor and not to self-medicate. Because this can lead to chronic thrush that will manifest itself at the slightest opportunity.

Treatment is usually administered after passing additional tests for other infections and sensitivity to antibiotics. The course includes as a fungicide and apparatus for lifting immunity. Should be treated from both partners, even if the yeast infection is seen only in one of them.

Although candidiasis is not a dangerous infection, but to run it is not necessary, because it can develop into more complex forms and cause complications.

Advice 5: How do you get Ureaplasma

Ureaplasma is the smallest bacteria that lives in the mucous membranes of the genitourinary system. Under certain conditions, it may cause the development of inflammatory process – a ureaplasmosis. There are two ways of transmission.
How do you get Ureaplasma

The main route of infection


As a rule, the ureaplasmosis is passed for all types of sexual contacts. In contact with the pathogen at the genitals of a partner, there are two possible scenario. In some cases, the microorganism inhabits the male and female sex organs without causing any symptoms, but can be transmitted during sex. If carriers Ureaplasma are both partners, this condition can not be treated.

However, in some cases, after the incubation period (3 to 4 weeks), there may be signs of inflammation caused by Ureaplasma. In women, vaginitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the vagina) and in men – urethritis (urethral canal). This is possible in violation of the integrity of the urogenital organs and reduction in immunity due to stress, physical exertion and acute diseases. Therefore, Ureaplasma infection is often found in people suffering from gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, chlamydia and candidiasis.

Transmission of Ureaplasma from mother to child


The probability of fetal infection during pregnancy is minimal, it still exists. The microorganism can penetrate to the fetus from the uterus through the membranes (the upward path). The infection gets into the Airways, which contributes to the development of pneumonia.

In addition, infection can occur via the blood vessels that deliver nutrients through the placenta. It contributes to the development of pathological changes of internal organs of the fetus.

In some cases, the pregnancy can proceed normally, and the infection occurs during childbirth when passing through the birth canal of the mother. In this case the newborn usually develop the inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract.

Ureaplasma is a threat for the expectant mother. During pregnancy there is a decrease in immunity, which can trigger the development of inflammatory process in vagina. Therefore, if the pathogen is detected during pregnancy, treatment held by both spouses.

Are there any other ways of getting infected with Ureaplasma


Although domestic route of transmission is in question to many researchers, however, we cannot exclude the risk of infection when using the towel of a sick person.

Theoretically there is also the possibility of infection during the transplant, but this is almost impossible, since organ donors are carefully screened.

Advice 6: How do you get Trichomonas

Trichomoniasis is a common infection of the genitourinary system. It is caused by a simple organism - Trichomonas, which can spread in several ways.
How do you get Trichomonas

The main route of transmission


Trichomoniasis like other STDs, is transmitted, as a rule, in any type of sexual contact (genital, anal, and oral Paltseva touching the genitals of the partner). However, the highest probability of infection occurs during traditional intercourse. In most cases the infected partner infects the partner. This is due to the fact that men have trichomoniasis very often occurs without symptoms characteristic signs, so any security measures are not taken. Much less likely to be a source of infection can a woman with asymptomatic course of the disease.

Other ways of infection


In rare cases, other ways of infection: by direct contact with blood, semen, and vaginal secret sick person. In particular, can cause the contamination of the fetus from the mother infected trichomoniasis, during pregnancy and childbirth (when the affected Trichomonas genital tract). A particularly high risk of infection for newborn girl, because of her anatomical features.

Infection with Trichomonas in indirect contact


In some cases, transmission of Trichomonas can occur in the absence of close contact with a sick person. This is the only sexually transmitted diseases that can be spread through everyday life. Infection can occur while wearing someone else's underwear, the use of a common towel and washcloth. Trichomonas for several hours retains its viability on the dishes, seats, toilets, walls of swimming pools and baths. Therefore, the violation of elementary norms of hygiene increase the risk of infection. However, infection by household is extremely rare. As a rule, the cases associated with nonsexual infection, be later revealed chronic trihomoniaza.

Precautions


It is important to remember that the human body does not produce protective antibodies against the infection. After full recovery from trihomoniaza at any time may be the transfer of a microorganism from an infected partner. In addition, if the disease for any reason was not cured completely, Trichomonas may for many years be present in the body in a latent form and manifest in the occurrence of minimal precipitating factors. The main services are: decreased immunity, hormonal disorders, violation of the normal microflora of the vagina in women, infection with other sexually transmitted diseases.

Advice 7: How do you get tetanus

Tetanus differs from most other diseases that can be prevented through vaccines. The disease is not transmitted from person to person and can be obtained as a result of contact with contaminated land, dust and fertilizers. The disease agent also penetrates through cracks and cuts on the skin caused by infected objects.
How do you get tetanus

Sources of infection



Tetanus is caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The source of the infection is common and can be found almost everywhere.

The bacterium enters the body through cracks and wounds. Increased probability of infection with tetanus occurs when wounds were caused by a dirty object on which there are remnants of feces, soil or saliva. Also high risk of infection through burns, open fractures, or wounds with necrotic tissue.

In rare cases, the bacteria can penetrate through superficial damage, which was lifted only the top layer of skin. The disease can also occur in surgical operations. Very rarely there are cases of tetanus resulting from the bite of infected insects, and dental infections. Also the risk of infection increases if the person on the skin are chronic inflammation and infection. Probable is the transfer of tetanus in intravenous drug affected syringe.

Women can become infected with tetanus when carrying out the birth or abortion of infected instruments. Newborns can be infected using a knife, razor or other tool that can be used in cutting the umbilical cord. Theoretically possible transfer of the disease to the newborn, if in the hands of a man who delivers, is a bacterium.

Rarely tetanus called when the operations of piercing and scarring. There have been documented cases of the disease during the operation of circumcision is poorly sanitized tools.

Risk groups



Infection disease can occur in humans of any age and gender, but most tetanus occurs in newborns (neonatal tetanus). Most of the children infected with the disease die because their immune system is not able to resist the activity of bacterial infection.

Symptoms



The disease begins to show symptoms usually within 3-10 days, but sometimes the infection can enter the active stage and after 3 weeks. The shorter the incubation period of the disease, the higher the risk of death.

At the initial stage may appear nagging pains in the field, through which the occurred penetration of the infection. After a few days starts the phenomenon of lockjaw, which manifests itself in spasmodic contraction of the masticatory muscles. In the complicated form of the disease the teeth firmly stickymouse, because of which the patient loses the ability to open the mouth. To further develop the phenomenon sardonic smile. Due to spasm disrupts the function of swallowing, there is tension in the muscles of the neck. The disease spreads throughout the body, in some cases causing a complete stiffness of the body and violation of the ability to walk normally. Spasms lead to the inability to perform vital functions of respiration, defecation, swallowing, urination. The disease is accompanied by accelerated metabolic and cardiac disorders.

Advice 8: How do you get Helicobacter

Helicobacter pylori infection - a disease that began to meet more and more often. But few know about how the bacterium enters the human body!
Helicobacter
Helicobacter pylori infection is currently quite common infection. Witness the statistics: the disease is detected in approximately 20-25 % of the population. With age, the proportion of cases increases and reaches a lath in 60 %.

Who settled in the body?


The disease is caused by occurrence in the human body the germ Helicobacter pylori. This organism resembles in appearance a spiral and is provided with several flagella. Resides usually in the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum, and thereby becomes the initiator of the development of such diseases as gastritis (acute and chronic), ulcers, and sometimes cancer of the stomach.

The microbe due to the peculiarities of their life – the ability to neutralize hydrochloric acid of the stomach - able for long time to survive in the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract.

How did I get infected?


Despite the fact that Helicobacter has been well studied, reliable data about the way of Contracting the disease is still not found. However, scientists are inclined to believe that the food enters the bacterium through water, food and vector-borne – contact with infected person.

In most people the disease is not accompanied by any symptoms, and the disease passes in a few days even without treatment. A similar effect, incidentally, is called spontaneous recovery.

Transmission of Helicobacter pylori within the family are possible when using common utensils or by close physical contact – be it kissing or sex.

According to American health statistics, almost half of patients with Helicobacter pylori infection has already infected with the same infection a spouse or children. But, despite these data, the American medicine recommends to start treatment in the case when at least one of the family members after the treatment of the disease had a relapse.

In addition, carriers of Helicobacter pylori can be Pets – especially cats and dogs. But transmission of the pathogen from them is found only in a few cases.

However, do not be afraid of this disease. If you feel even a little discomfort, as possible, seek professional medical help immediately. Prompt diagnosis and rapid initiation of treatment will allow to overcome the disease is still in the first steps of its development.

Advice 9: How do you get HPV

The virus of papilloma human (HPV) there are over one hundred types. Most often it manifests itself in the form of benign formations on the skin. However, about a third of papillomaviruses is carcinogenic in nature, i.e. it can trigger the occurrence of cancers like cancer of the skin, cervix or other internal organs. Doctors have identified three main features of HPV infection.
How do you get HPV
Instruction
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The infection is a sexually transmitted pamparomas has a long latent period of development. An infected person does not know about the disease, but dangerous to others, especially sexual partners. The carrier of the virus infected cells are concentrated not only on the skin surface, but also in saliva, urine, semen, mucous membranes of the female genital organs. By close contact, HPV enters the body of a healthy person through mucous membranes or microscopic cracks in the skin. Transmission of the virus occurs in various forms of sexual intercourse and kissing.
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The probability of sexual transmission of emergency high. If a constant couple one of the partners discovered papillomavirus, infection the other will occur almost certainly. Caution should be observed in the case when the papillomas are removed, because HPV may remain in the blood.
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At particular risk are people who often change partners and neglecting our sex life elementary means of protection. Additional factors that contribute to infection with the virus HPV, are alcoholism, drug addiction, Smoking.
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Contamination of household potamodromous to catch HPV in normal life quite a lot. Household by often infected children and adolescents, and adults with weakened immune systems. First of all, the virus is transmitted to family members of an infected person through common household items: dishes, towels, hygiene products (razor blades, toothbrushes, washcloths, etc.). The infection can wait the victim in the bathtub, in the sink or on the toilet seat.
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More danger one is exposed to, visiting public places where there are favorable conditions for the spread of the virus, such as swimming pools, gyms, solariums, beauty salons, etc. to keep healthy, you need to carefully observe personal hygiene. Even with a small amount of skin damage (cracks, scratches, abrasions) visit crowded places better to postpone.
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Paragenetic is called vertical transmission of HPV from mother to child during pregnancy or at the moment of birth. The infant in this case, after some time there are warts in the genital area or in the organs of the upper respiratory tract.
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Women planning a pregnancy or already expecting a child should undergo a special examination in the presence of the body papillomavirus. Upon detection of the infection of the mother will prescribe treatment under the supervision of a physician. To minimize the risk of infecting the child in this case, gynecologists can advise to use in childbirth cesarean section.
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