The first thing you should pay attention to is motivation. Set a goal and head towards it, despite all the difficulties. And it doesn't matter what is your goal: going to College for a medical specialty or simply an extension of the horizon of knowledge. Motivation will help you if you are tired and just want to quit.
How fast would you have liked to learn the subject, know that trying to learn a large amount of material in a short time still not worth it. Otherwise you will constantly confuse, forget formulas and so on. Therefore, it is better to pay attention to the systematization of knowledge: each lesson will devote one section, and after studying a topic start a recurrence and strengthen the material covered. By the way, try not so much "cramming", but to understand. What you understand, not just memorize by heart, you will remain in your memory much longer.
Attach the studied theoretical material, solving the problem. They also help to better memorize and learn to analyze covered. Thus, you will be able to draw conclusions and sistematizarea what is already learned. The decision task allows better and faster understanding of this new material.
Not to forget that you've mastered a few months or even weeks ago, make something of type of tests and examinations. Repeat the material from time to time. By the way, great help with self-preparation can become a theatre company and self-help books, which abound both in conventional stores and on the Internet (you can download free textbooks, not necessarily to buy).
To test your strength, test for knowledge, trying to explain to someone what they have learned. Try not to hurry, tell in detail. Thanks to this method it is possible not only to fix the material, but also to detect "gaps" in knowledge.
Advice 2 : How to learn chemistry
Translated in Greek "chemistry" means "essence, mixing, molding". The science that studies the chemical elements, their compounds and the laws by which chemical reactions. To fully learn it, of course, difficult, but the amount of information to master is possible.
Do not try to master the material in a short period of time. The fact information bad other exact Sciences. So you just mix up all the definitions and create a chaos in his mind. Try to master not more than one section a day so you will be able not only to learn chemistrybut to understand it. This is important because what is not for us to sense very quickly "disappears" out of your head.
Periodically repeat what has already passed, it will be a good exercise for the memory. You can sometimes even repeat out loud, even more to fix learned.
Try to solve the problem. They develop the ability to analyze. The fact that many of the concepts in chemistry can be derived from previously traversed. For example, substance names come from their structure, i.e. no need to cram every "formula name". And many chemical properties are based on the template: interaction with metals, nonmetals, acids, alkalis, each other, etc. Learning to put all "on the shelves", you will draw the right conclusions, i.e. part of the material will be perceived and remembered.
Create a detailed plan of each section. When you do, you will be able to draw an analogy between them. General formula, structure, application, preparation, physical and chemical properties - like the description of most compounds. Of course, much depends on what chemicals you want to learn: inorganic, organic, physical, analytical, colloid, etc. But any of these disciplines lends itself to logical thinking. So, it is possible to resort to the algorithm that can be used as a cheat sheet to podglyadyvanie if you forgot some item.
Try your hand as a teacher. Someone from home, tell what you have learned. Explain sensibly, slowly. If you understand, then we can assume that you have achieved success.
Advice 3 : How to read the periodic table
The discovery of the periodic law and creation of an ordered system of chemical elements D. I. Mendeleyev became the apogee of the development of chemistry in the nineteenth century. Scientists have been compiled and systematized extensive material knowledge about the properties of elements.
In the XIX century there were no ideas about the structure of the atom. The opening of D. I. Mendeleev was only a generalization of experimental facts, but their physical meaning has long remained unclear. When the first data on the structure of the nucleus and the distribution of electrons in atoms, it is possible to look at the periodic law and the system elements in new ways. Table of D. I. Mendeleev makes it possible to visually trace the periodicity of properties of elements found in nature.
Each element in the table is assigned a specific sequence number (H - 1, Li - 2, Be - 3, etc.). This number corresponds to the charge of the nucleus (number of protons in the nucleus) and the number of electrons rotating around the nucleus. The number of protons, therefore, equal to the number of electrons, and this suggests that under normal conditions, the atom is electrically neutral.
The division into seven periods is happening to the energy levels of the atom. The atoms of the first period have a single-level electronic shell, the second duplex, and the third a three-tier, etc. When filling a new energy level starts a new period.
The first elements of every period are characterized by atoms with one electron at the outer level, are atoms of alkali metals. The period ends with the atoms of noble gases have completely filled outer electron energy level: in the first period, noble gases have 2 electrons in the next - 8. It is because of the similar structure of the electron shells of the group of elements have similar physical and chemical properties.
In the table of D. I. Mendeleev present 8 major subgroups. Such a number is due to the maximum possible number of electrons on the energy level.
At the bottom of the periodic system selected lanthanides and actinides as a separate series.
Using the periodic table you can observe the periodicity of the following properties of the elements: the radius of the atom, the volume of the atom; ionization potential; the strength of the affinity with the electron; the electronegativity of the atom; oxidation; physical properties of potential compounds.
For example, the radii of atoms, when viewed along a period decreases from left to right; grow downwards, if you look along the band.
A clear periodicity arrangement of elements in the table Mendeleyev rationally owing to the continuous nature of the filling of electron energy levels.
Advice 4 : How to learn chemical elements
Students who started to study chemistry, are often faced with great difficulty trying to learn the names and symbols of chemical elements. They think that this is an impossible task, because of the more than 100 elements. However, there are many effective techniques that can help.
You will need
- Periodic Table.
In the curriculum you do not need to memorize all the chemical elements. You will need to learn only two or three dozen, and it is much easier. You can memorize chemical elements by periods. Look at the periodic Table. In the first period only 2 elements, hydrogen and helium. We are to remember them is not difficult. In the second period has 8 elements: lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine and neon. 8 names to remember are not easy. Therefore, resort to the Association. What is the term reminds you of the word "lithium"? Of course, lithium batteries batteries in cell phones, laptops, digital cameras, camcorders.
The word "beryllium" is less known. You may have heard about beryllium bronze (an alloy with exceptional elasticity). If you are interested in minerals you may have heard of beryl, some varieties of which (e.g., emerald, aquamarine) belong to the category of precious stones. Well, the fans of Conan Doyle may recall his story "the Beryl circlet".
How to remember the word "Bor"? Boric acid almost certainly will be in every home medicine Cabinet. Remember the great physicist Niels Bohr, the Nobel prize winner. And so on. "Carbon" is perfectly synonymous with the word "coal", and that the main components of air are nitrogen and oxygen, you know with the younger classes. About fluoride insists is calling to use toothpaste with this component. And about the inert gas neon, and say nothing: multi-coloured neon signs everywhere. Similarly, gradually memorize the elements in the third and subsequent periods.
You can remember not to periods and groups. Start with the first main group: hydrogen, lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium. The last element of the group, France, is very little known. Remember that he had most strongly expressed metallic properties. After that, you can learn 4 elements of the halogen from the seventh main groups: fluorine – chlorine – bromine – iodine. Try to remember that bromine is the only nonmetal that are in a liquid, and iodine is a solid. The fifth element of the group, astatine, like France, very few distributed. About it should know that it is the only halogen which exhibits properties as a nonmetal and metal. And gradually likewise continue to teach the elements found in the other groups.