For a very long time ancientEgyptian hieroglyphics depicting the heavenly bodies, creatures, human body parts, musical instruments and weapons seemed to be a mystery that will never be able to unravel. While in 1799 during Napoleon's expedition found no Rosetta stone – a basalt slab with identical inscription in three languages: Egyptian hieroglyphic, Egyptian demotic and ancient Greek. These labels have managed to decipher the French researcher Francois Champollion in 1822. From this time began the science of Egyptology.
In appearance the characters are a drawings of various objects and living beings. Each Chinese character or word meant, for example, a picture of a duck, does the word "duck", or indirectly, hinted at the content of the word. For example, the image of two legs meant "walk, run".
Best known for more than 5000 Egyptian hieroglyphs, but in each of the epochs were used no more than 700-800. Among the characters distinguished: odnokomnatnaya signs denoting the consonants of the Egyptian language, there are about 30; two-triconsonantal signs that convey morpheme; ideograms, representing whole words and determinatives, a subsidiary or unpronounceable characters, clarifying the meaning of words.
The meaning of many words is still known approximately. Basically it concerns the naming of the stones, animals, drugs. This is due to the fact that in addition to the usual letters in Egypt were consumed even cryptography to solve that is not possible.
In the normal (unencrypted) letter of the Egyptian texts are read, but say them out loud is impossible due to the lack of europethey vowel sounds. The ancient Egyptians had no trouble pasovat texts (to pronounce them with the vowel sounds). But to us this knowledge is not reached. So for the convenience of scientists and Egyptologists have agreed to insert between the consonants the vowel sounds "e". So, for example, the auxiliary sign ^ passed the combination of "s + an unknown vowel + n". Conventionally, it is read as "Sep". But a series of guttural vowels and polyglossic such as Russian "y" is also conventionally read as "a", "I", "u". This method conditional the vowel has nothing to do with the real phonetics of the Egyptian language.
World-famous names of Egyptian pharaohs Akhenaten, Nefertiti, gods RA, ISIS. Actually sounded like Ehnaton, Nefret, Er, Essay. This is also an approximate reconstruction given on the basis of the later Coptic language.
If you are fond of egiptologia and want to read ancient Egyptian texts independently, then explore the special directories and read books from leading scholars and Egyptologists. Be sure to purchase the five-volume dictionary of the Egyptian language, which contained about 16,000 words.
Advice 2 : How to translate the hieroglyphics on the Russian
Today there are only a few languages with characternical writing, among them Chinese, Japanese and Tangut. In the Korean language for a long time used Chinese characters (hancha), but today they are almost out of use. Tangut little known, but the first two are quite popular around the world. But their writing system is so different from the usual letter, inherent in European languages, which translate unknown characters is proving difficult.
If you do not take into account the Tangut script, hancha and ancient languages, the character can be Japanese or Chinese. And since the Japanese borrowed the letter from the Chinese few centuries ago, the characters in both languages are the same. Therefore, the value of the sign of the Chinese text may be found in Japanese dictionaries or Vice versa. The only thing that you should know: in the land of the rising sun still use the ancient, traditional spelling, whereas in China, some characters were simplified. However, dictionaries still indicate both.
If you find a kanji in Japanese or Chinese website, the easiest way to translate it using online dictionaries, or translationsChikov, sign copying and pasting in the search bar. For example, use Google translator or any dictionary, great characters there are in the Large Chinese-Russian dictionary. http://bkrs.info/. You can also download and install the program on your pocket to always be able to translate hieroglyphics.
If you need to find the character that exists only in the form of an image, the transfer will have to spend more time. There are several options. Search the Internet for a list of common characters of the target language. For example, the Japanese often use the alphabet and characters is much less than in China – spread of not more than two thousand. You can find the list of compulsory study of Japanese characters and look for your sign in them. Or you can find sites with lists of popular Chinese characters: wishes of happiness, health, money, prosperity. If your sign is printed on the t-shirt, souvenir, postcard, this method will help you.
Find a dictionary that supports manual search, where you can in a special box to redraw the character. The program will compare with the characters in the database, and will offer appropriate options with the translation. Try to reproduce all the features as accurately as possible and clearly.
And finally, you can find the translated character in the usual dictionaries. There are different types of search: the number of the features on "keys" (constituent parts) on the first or last lines. For example, in the dictionary Kotova search is organized on the first two lines in the hieroglyph, in a large dictionary Mudrova – at last. Finding the right sign for these characteristics in the list (which is usually located at the end of the dictionary), click the page number is listed next to the character.
Advice 3 : How to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphics
Many have Souvenirs from Egypt, where there are inscriptions in hieroglyphics. Of course, I want to understand what is written there. The right thing was to ask the seller. But what if the idea is to decode the message came much later?
You will need
- - the table of correspondence of characters sounds and concepts;
- - access to the Internet;
- - knowledge of the English language;
- - Coptic-English dictionary.
Choose the charactersthat interest you in the first place. Only in the Egyptian inscriptions was allocated 166 different characters. Some of them are not letters, and ideographs, that is, symbols of certain concepts. For example, in a contemporary letter, this role performs a number can be written and how the word "number".
Compare selected characters with the table of correspondence to the Latin letters. It was first made by Jean-françois Champollion, French scholar, who has the honor of deciphering the ancient Egyptian inscriptions. Write found letter - get the sound of the written word. If the characters were encrypted some modern concept, you can easily translate with English as the most widespread in the tourism language. If we are talking about a real ancient inscriptions, you will have to make additional efforts.
Examine the same table, ideograms and chords. In the Egyptian language various signs were mixed together with letters, in addition, not used for vowels. Compare the translated words from the content of the Coptic dictionary. The fact that knowledge of the language of the Copts still living in Egypt, allowed Champollion to understand and translate the hieroglyphs. Certainly this exercise will help you. Will only pick up a match English words in the Russian language.
Learn English speaking part of the Internet: search, for example, in the following words "The Egyptian hieroglyphs to decipher". In contrast to the Russian-language queries, this approach gives a much larger number of really useful links. Can you advise the so-called virtual tour of Egypt: http://www.virtual-egypt.com/newhtml/hieroglyphics/. Here is a detailed story about the kanji. In addition, there exists the possibility to solve the inverse problem: translate your name into Egyptian hieroglyphs.