You need to allow the child to risk. Here in any case, this does not mean unthought of uncontrolled risk "Daredevil". But in childhood the child needs and fall, and fight, and quarrel with one another, and testing experiences. All of this is important for the formation of personality without mental disorders on the background of the development of any phobias.
We need to teach the child to solve their own problems, some tasks, undertakings and not to rush instantly, on the first call, perform them for him. Let the kid first, he will try to act, and only when absolutely necessary to help him. Thus the child develops the ability to fix their mistakes and take responsibility for their actions, rather than hope that someone will fix them for him. Because in the future it will not.
No need to praise your child. Yes, many think that it will form it self-confidence. But in adult life he may encounter so-called "cutting away the wings and will either assume that everyone else underestimate him, or his self-esteem and self-respect will plummet, which could lead to depression.
No need to spoil their children with excessive reward for any action (such as cleaning, excellent in school, etc.). This form of material relations creates in children a lack of moral motivation to commit any decent actions.
You need to share with the children stories about their mistakes. This will help them to develop your plan out of unpleasant situations that can happen to them.
You must give the child the freedom to the extent which corresponds to the age of the child. Often the intellect and the excessive development of the child overshadow his lack of independence, and parents mistakenly believe that the child is ready to embark on an independent path. Or too hinder its independence. It is best to observe and focus on the behavior of the child's peers and their parents.
It is important to remember that all the principles of life and responsibility are formed initially by the family. It is necessary to analyze their actions and behave so that the child produced subsequent model behavior and responsibility both in the family and being an independent person.
Never forget we are responsible for what will become our child. First and foremost, be aware for the consequences of his deeds.