Advice 1: How to check quartz resonator

A quartz crystal resonator is a crystal electronic device, capable of supporting a resonance at a certain frequency. It has high stability and accuracy. To verify that it works, you have to get one of the circuits crystal oscillators on field or bipolar transistors.
How to check quartz resonator
You will need
  • quartz resonator;
  • - frequency meter or oscilloscope;
  • - radio;
  • tester;
  • accessories for soldering;
  • - bare copper wire (preferably silver plated);
  • - sverhekonomichny receiver.
Instruction
1
Collect one of the proposed schemes. As an indicator of generation of the generator output connect a measuring instrument is provided with a simple detector on a point of a semiconductor diode. If you have a diode rectifier head device, use it. This can be a tester, vacuum tube voltmeter, etc. On the deflection device can be judged on the appearance of generation. With the same purpose, you can apply the oscilloscope. It will be even clearer. The emergence of generation indicates the proper operation of the quartz resonator.
Collect one of the standard schemes
2
If you want to know the resonance frequency of the quartz resonator, connect the generator output frequency meter or oscilloscope. The latter gives the possibility to determine the frequency using Lissajous figures. Please note that the quartz can be excited as at the fundamental frequency and the harmonics.
3
If you do not require high measurement accuracy, can use a homemade resonant wavemeter. It is a simple detector receiver, in which instead of the phone included a dial indicator, and a variable capacitor is provided with a scale indicating the frequency. The output of the generator in this case must be an inductor consisting of several turns of bare copper wire. On the occurrence of resonance can be observed at the maximum deflection of the resonant wavemeter, and the frequency - on a scale tuning a variable capacitor. Resonance wavemeter need to pre-calibrate any accurate source of radio signals. Coil resonant circuit can be done interchangeable for different ranges of settings.
4
To determine the efficiency and approximate resonance frequency of the quartz resonator can be another way. To the pins of the resonator plug in a small coil. It consists of 2-5 turns naked, and best of silvered copper wire. Hold it up to a oscillator circuit working sverhsekretnoj receiver. Adjust the capacitor circuit of the receiver so that the noise of supersale headphones completely gone. In this case, your receiver will be tuned to the resonance frequency of the quartz resonator or to one of its harmonics. This method does not provide high accuracy of measurement. But it gives an indication about the health of the quartz resonator.

Advice 2: How to test a bipolar transistor

A transistor is an electronic device used in circuits to amplify the initial signal and is made of semiconductor materials. Bipolar transistor differs from other kinds of transistors to those used as carriers as electrons and holes.
How to test a bipolar transistor
You will need
  • tester with built-in meter gain of the transistors, the conventional tester in ohmmeter mode or digital mode diode, but also a special circuit in the active mode.
Instruction
1
Need to know what transistors are divided into two types, depending on the alternation of layers with different conductivity. To measure the forward resistance of p-n-p (n-semiconductor with electronic conductivity, a p - semiconductor with hole conductivity) of the transition, the "minus" of the multimeter connect to the database, and the "plus" turns to the collector and the emitter. Then measure reverse resistance, by submitting to the base plus, and the emitter and collector - minus. Resistance n-p-n junction check the same, but change the polarity. The meaning of these actions is to test the transitions from the base to the collector and the emitter, they must prozvanivatsya only in one direction.
2
Such verification does not guarantee that the transistor is working properly, but based on the statistics, you can get a lot of confidence in his performance. Most often in case of failure of bipolar transistor or can sometimes be short-circuiting the terminals, or open circuit. If you want absolute certainty, you will have to check the transistor is in active mode.
3
To do this, collect a special scheme, as illustrated. The scheme is made on the basis of readily available three-piezo-emitter (used in phones). If the transistor is faulty, you will hear an acoustic signal. The advantages of this scheme is that it is easy to assemble, it can help to check any bipolar transistor of conductivity (by changing the polarity of the power source toggle switch SA1), and with all this, you will not be able to damage the transistor, even if you make a mistake with the power supply.

Advice 3: How to check the capacitor on the performance

The car's engine is its heart. But to correct it requires a coordinated interaction of many factors. One of the most important is the ignition system. The right it setup enables you to use the power of the car in full force. So the main time to prevent possible problems in it, especially the contact mechanism in the distributor. The failure of the capacitor is a pretty rare case, but on the road you need to be prepared for any eventuality.
How to check the capacitor on the performance
You will need
  • - portable lamp;
  • - ohmmeter
Instruction
1
Take a portable lamp, it will help to check the breakdown of the capacitor to ground. Disconnect the wire of the capacitor and wire the ignition coil from the clip circuit breaker, and plug a portable lamp. The capacitor is faulty if the lamp comes on when the ignition is on. To reduce the erosion of the breaker contacts and raising the secondary voltage and parallel connected capacitor. When they open, when the clearance is minimal, a spark and is charging the capacitor. Each ignition system is equipped with its condenser. Usually the capacity is in the range of 0,17—0,35 UF. For automobiles it is in the range 0,20—0,25 mkF. The deviation in the capacitance of the capacitor gives a reduction of the secondary voltage. When it is charging and discharging it does not exceed 5 kV.
2
Disconnect the clamp on the breaker black wire that goes from ignition coil, disconnect the circuit breaker from the leads of the capacitor. They touch each other. Turn on the ignition. When you see the sparks between the ends of the wires will indicate the breakdown of the capacitor. You can also check its serviceability, its charge from the ignition coil high voltage, and then discharge it to ground. If there is spark discharge between the housing and the wire condenser with a distinctive click, it will mean that he is OK. If after charging no spark, then the capacitor is leaking current.
3
Disconnect the condenser and crank engine. The characteristic symptom of the capacitor is excessive arcing between the breaker contacts during starting of the engine. Therefore, the appearance of a very weak spark between ground and the Central high-voltage wire and is strong enough arcing of the contact breaker capacitor broken and requires replacement.
4
Take an ohmmeter. Connect the output capacitor with its case for his discharge. Connect one probe of the ohmmeter to the tip wire, and the second housing (switch the ohmmeter to the upper limit of measurement). If the capacitor is OK, the arrow is deflected sharply in the direction of "0", then slowly return to the symbol "∞". When you change the polarity, arrow more is deflected to "zero." Broken replace the capacitor.
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