Normal in the urine of adult males must be from 0 to 3 leukocytes in sight. The norm for women is equal to 0-5 units. In children it ranges from 1 to 8 units per field of view. In some cases, when conducting clinical analysis in the urine elevated white blood cell count. The increase in the number of white blood cells to 20 is called leukocyturia. The increase of leukocytes, accompanied by purulent secretions, is a symptom of pyuria (purulent inflammation).
Causes of leukocyturia are: prostatitis, cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis, presence of stones in the ureter, glomerulonephritis, a manifestation of GVHD (reaction "transplant against host") after kidney transplantation. Pyuria is an indicator of pathological conditions: inflammation, allergic reactions, parasitic infestations, infections of urogenital system pathology of the connective tissue.
Leukocytes in the urine may rise due to an infectious process in the vagina during pregnancy. An alarming symptom is the rapid development of leukocyturia in a pregnant woman. In this case, the necessary additional diagnostics to rule out inflammation in the bladder. Other common reasons for the increase of leukocytes in urine are kidney infection. The likelihood of developing this disease increases with the weakening of the immune system and bladder catheterization.
Inflammatory diseases of the kidney are accompanied by the following symptoms: change in color of urine, pain in the lumbar region, fever. To infections of the urinary tract include cystitis, urethritis, prostatitis. Typical symptoms of such diseases include pain when urinating, pain in the suprapubic area. To increase the number of leukocytes in the urine can cause inflammation caused by STDs (sexually transmitted diseases).
Leukocyturia is causing urine retention in the bladder. This condition leads to weakening of the wall of the body and the development of pathogenic organisms causing infectious diseases. Blockage or narrowing of the urinary ducts may also be accompanied by an increase in the number of leukocytes. These conditions can be trauma, hypertrophy of the prostate, stones in the urinary ducts of the kidney, tumors in the pelvic organs.
In some patients, the leukocyte count increases with amyloidosis (the deposition in the kidney of insoluble protein - amyloid), and renal tuberculosis. The main reasons for the increase in the number of leukocytes in urine in children are metabolic disturbances, allergies, infectious diseases and inflammation (cystitis, urethritis, inflammation of the kidneys or of the external genitalia, enterobiasis).