More than two and a half millennia ago originated the thinking, contrary to the views of traditional mythology. The birthplace of philosophy is considered Greece, but new forms of ideology arose in India, China, Ancient Rome and Egypt.
Sages first appeared in Ancient Greece even before the onset of a new era. The philosophy of science begins with the name of Socrates. Parmenides and Heraclitus are democratische to the ancient Greek thinkers who were interested in the laws of existence of life.
Heraclitus created a philosophical doctrine about the state and morals, the soul and the gods, law, and opposites. It is believed that many famous phrase "everything flows, Everything changes" belongs to him. Reliable sources were very short of information about the life of sage Heraclitus went away from the people to the mountains, as he hated them, and lived there alone, so students and "trainees". To the works of the ancient Greek philosopher addressed the next generation of thinkers, among which include Socrates, Aristotle, Plato.
Of the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates and his teachings tell of the works of Plato and Xenophon, as the sage himself left no writings. Speakers preaching in the squares and streets of Athens, Socrates sought to educate the younger generation and opposed the most important intellectuals of the time - the sophists. On charges of corrupting the youth in a non-conventional spirit, in the introduction of new deities Greek philosopher was executed (forced to take poison).
Socrates was not satisfied with the ancient natural philosophy, therefore, the objects of his observations have become the human consciousness and thinking. Naive veneration of the people a large number of gods, Socrates was replaced by the doctrine that life moves to a predetermined target under the control of forces, it is advisable rails (similar to the philosophy of Providence and the Providence is called teleology). For the philosopher there was no contradiction between behaviour and mind.
Socrates the teacher of many future founders of philosophical schools. He criticized all forms of government by the state if they violated the laws of justice.
Student of Socrates Plato considered things in the likeness and reflection of ideas, through the love which occurs on the spiritual ascent. He was convinced of the necessity of educating people, pay attention to the origin of state and law.
According to Plato, the ideal state should exist in the hierarchy of the three constituent classes: the wise rulers, warriors and officials, craftsmen and peasants. Justice in the human soul and in the state occurs under the coexistence of major started the soul (lust, ardor and prudence) with human qualities (common sense, courage, and wisdom).
In the philosophical thinking Plato spoke in detail about the upbringing of a person from infancy, details thought through system of penalties, denying any personal initiative, contrary to the law.
Views on the teachings of this ancient philosopher have changed over time. In antiquity Plato called the "divine teacher" in the Middle ages, the predecessor of the worldview of Christianity, the Renaissance saw him as a political utopian and preacher of the ideal of love.
Aristotle, scientist and philosopher, was the founder of ancient Greek Lika, the famous tutor of Alexander the great. Having lived in Athens for twenty years, Aristotle became a student at the lectures of the sage Plato, carefully studied his works. Despite our differences that cause arguments between teacher and student in the future, Aristotle respected Plato.
A philosopher was distinguished by small growth was guttural and short-sighted, with a sarcastic smile on his lips. Coldness and sarcasm, witty and often sarcastic speech of Aristotle gave reason to have a lot of detractors among the Greeks, did not like him. But remained works showing the man who sincerely loved the truth, understood the reality around him, tirelessly sought to gather and to organize factual material. In the face of the Aristotle Greek philosophy has changed: in place of the ideal of enthusiasm came Mature judgment.
Philosophical thought of the middle Ages mostly consisted of a presentation and interpretation of existing creeds. Medieval philosophers tried to find out the ratio in my life of God and man. And in this historical period the ruling right enjoyed by the mind of faith dissenters people are brought before a court of the Inquisition. A striking example is the Italian monk, scientist and philosopher Giordano Bruno.
In the XV-XVI centuries (the Renaissance) the center of attention of thinkers was a man-the Creator of the world. An important place in this period, had the art. Great people of the era (Dante, Shakespeare, Montaigne, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci) their creativity proclaimed humanist views, and thinkers Campanella, Machiavelli, Moore, in his project of the ideal state focused on the new social class, the bourgeoisie.
In modern times the main purpose of philosophy is to serve the science that can improve human life. Famous thinkers were interested in the main methods of understanding the world. Philosophy was support of the natural Sciences (examples include the works of Descartes and bacon).
Germany is the birthplace of many philosophers: Kant, Hegel, Feuerbach and many others. It was there in the mid-nineteenth century was born of Marxist philosophy (founder - Karl Marx), is based on materialistic views on the historical process and contemporary understanding of the existing bourgeois society.
Shapelayer, Nietzsche had his own conclusions about the shadow sides of life and progress, first telescoping human passions, instincts, not reason.
Interested in all preceding generations of thinkers issues are subject for the study of modern philosophy.