Valentina Tereshkova born 6 March 1937 in the Yaroslavl region in a peasant family. She lost his father who served in the Red Army and perished during the Soviet-Finnish war. The family, except where Valentina had two more children, was not easy. To help her mother, after graduating from high school, Valentina went to work at the Yaroslavl tire plant, and then became a weaver in the factory of technical fabrics. At the same time she studied at night school for working youth, College of light industry (in absentia), was engaged in parachuting. As confessed later Tereshkova, to survive it wasn't easy, she was very tired. But since the 1960s it has become a free Secretary of the Komsomol Committee of the plant where he worked.
After successful flights of Yuri Gagarin and his fellow cosmonauts at the General designer of S. P. Korolev, the idea to send a woman into space. It was approved by the political leadership of the USSR. Began the selection of candidates in the squad for these parameters: age 30 years, height 170 cm, weight 70 kilograms, the experience of skydiving. Of course, the potential female astronaut had to be politically sound and morally stable. Of the many candidates chose five, including Valentina Tereshkova.
After several months of hard training at the end of November 1962, Tereshkova passed exams. And in March 1963 her candidacy as the first female astronaut was approved. In addition to the good training he played the role of a number of factors: the perfect origin (peasants), the ability to speak in front of large audiences, conduct advocacy work (the experience of the Secretary of the Komsomol Committee). Because female astronaut were to travel around the world, being a living example of the triumph of the ideas of socialism.
June 16, 1963 from the Baikonur cosmodrome launched the spaceship "Vostok-6" Valentina Tereshkova. The flight lasted three days and was fraught with great difficulties due to the emergency situation. Tereshkova with honor coped with these troubles, though it cost her great effort and psychological stress. And she deservedly was awarded the highest state award – the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. Achievement Tereshkova, the more valuable that the flight occurred at the beginning of the era of space exploration when the design of the spacecraft was far from perfect, but the risks are especially great.