Causes of pneumonia
Pneumonia can occur independently or be a complication of another disease (colds, bronchitis, flu, etc.). In the first case, the infection enters the lungs through the bronchi, blood or lymph. In the second penetrating from adjacent organs, most commonly the oropharynx.
Causative agents of bacterial pneumonia are predominantly streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci and Klebsiella pneumonia. In more rare cases, the culprit of the disease is Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas or Escherichia coli. Viral pneumonia does not occur very often, but is very hard and not always treatable. One of the most known viruses, damaging lung tissue, is the so-called virus "bird flu" (H5N1). Fungal pathogens of pneumonia can be Histoplasma, Aspergillus and other fungi. Also the source of infection are often Legionella, Mycoplasma and other microorganisms.
Pneumonia often develops as a result of hypothermia. The most susceptible to disease people with weakened immune systems, children and the elderly. Another cause of pneumonia can be from contact with liquids, food or foreign body into the lungs. Also pneumonia often occurs in bedridden patients. Such pneumonia is called stagnant. In the vast majority of cases, especially when bilateral lesions of the lungs, infection in sedentary people is difficult to treat and leads to a painful death.
The symptoms of pneumonia
Depending on the pathogen and extent of lung disease, pneumonia can occur in different ways. The most common symptoms are:
- cough, often with sputum difficult and streaks of blood;
- shortness of breath;
- chest pain;
- high temperature;
- the General intoxication of the organism.
In severe cases, may experience respiratory failure, which is manifested by skin pallor, or cyanosis (bluish), and increase chest size. This condition can lead to irreversible consequences, and therefore requires immediate hospitalization.
Diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia
Because the symptoms of pneumonia can point to other diseases of the upper respiratory tract, it is necessary to conduct a thorough examination to ascertain that the cause of sickness really is pneumonia. For this you need to pass a General analysis of blood, do a chest x-ray and sputum tests. Such analysis allows to exclude tuberculosis, which often occurs similar to pneumonia way, but treated with other drugs.
In cases of suspected tuberculosis, sputum tests performed three times. In other cases, a single analysis, delivered in the morning not later than two hours after collection of the material.
Chest x-ray not only helps to diagnose pneumonia, but also to determine the number of foci of infection in the lungs. The study is carried out repeatedly and helps to follow the dynamics of the process in the course of treatment.
For successful treatment of pneumonia is important to identify the causative agent and most effective in terms of combating drugs. In viral pneumonia shows antiviral, fungal − antifungal, bacterial − antibiotics. In addition, the applied immunomodulators, expectorants and mucus thinning drugs, and antipyretics, vitamins and other medicines that improve health and eliminate signs of intoxication.
The effectiveness of prescription medication can be judged in 3-4 days after the start of therapy. In General, the treatment of pneumonia lasts at least two weeks.
Also for the treatment of inflammation of the lungs showing inhalation, therapeutic exercise, oxygen therapy and massage chest and back. In severe cases, fluid accumulation in the pleural cavity, bronchi and lungs under local anesthesia, performed pleural puncture, and bronchoscopy.
Of great importance a healthy diet. It should contain all the necessary vitamins and minerals to the body it easier for you to recover after treatment. You should also pay attention to strengthen the immune system, otherwise, high risk of the recurrence of the disease.
Prevention of pneumonia
Wholly to protect yourself from pneumonia is impossible, however you can reduce the likelihood of disease. It is important to lead a healthy lifestyle, strengthen the immune system, in a timely manner to treat acute respiratory infections and avoid contact with coughing people. Some of the causative agents of pneumonia vaccines have been developed. In particular, can take root from Haemophilus influenzae and pneumococcal infections.