You will need
- a piece of low carbon electrical steels, cylindrical shape, insulated copper wire, a constant current source.
Take a blank of electrical steel and carefully, turn to turn her wrap insulated copper wire. Wire take the middle cross-section in order to fit more turns, but at the same time not too thin, so he doesn't burn out from high current.
After that, connect the wire to the DC power source through the rheostat, if in the source there is no possibility to adjust the voltage. For such a magnet is enough of a source that emits up to 24 V. After that, move the slider of the rheostat at maximum resistance, or the controller of the source at the minimum voltage.
Slowly and carefully increase the voltage. This displays the characteristic vibration accompanied by sound, which you can hear in the transformer is normal. Be sure to monitor the winding temperature, since it depends on the duration of the electromagnet. Bring the voltage up to that value at which the copper wire will begin to heat up clearly. After that, cut the power and allow the winding to cool. Again turn on the current and through such manipulation to find the maximum voltage at which the conductor is not heated. This will be the nominal mode of operation is made , the electromagnet.
Move to one of the poles of the operating magnet body from the substance, which contains iron. It should firmly be attracted to the magnet nickle (nickle believe the base is a steel core). If the force of attraction is insufficient, take the cable with greater length and put the coils in several layers, proportionally increasing magnetic field. The conductor resistance will increase, and his adjustment would be needed again.
Magnet better attracted, take the core is u-shaped and wrap wire it straight - then the surface gravity and its strength will increase. To increase the force of gravity, make a core of an alloy of iron and cobalt, the conductivity of the magnetic field which is slightly higher.
Advice 2 : How to make a electric magnet
Electric magnet (electromagnet) is a device that acquires magnetic properties when connecting to a current source. It attracts ferromagnetic materials by the magnetic field. The electromagnet consists of a core and windings.
You will need
- cylinder of electric steel;
- - current source;
- - copper wire.
Procurement of electrical steel cylindrical shape to wind the copper wire in an insulating sheath. Use the wire with diameter of about 1 mm. It has sufficient conductivity and gives the opportunity to reel a large number of turns on the core, which will strengthen the magnetmagnetic field. It will be a winding of the electric magnet. To improve the effect, you can take the workpiece is u-shaped.
Assemble the electric circuit of series-connected current source, the winding of electromagnetand a resistance box or rheostat to adjust the current in the circuit. Use a constant current source with electromotive force of 24 volts. If it is possible to adjust the voltage directly on the power source, the rheostat in the circuit do not turn on. For controlling the current in the circuit, use a tester. Switch it in series with the electromagnetOhm.
Set the control source or the variable resistor so that the voltage was minimal. Then the current in the winding of the electromagnetand will have a safe value. Slowly start to increase the voltage. The current flowing through the winding of the electromagneta, will proportionally increase. For copper wire with a diameter of 1 mm the maximum safe current is 6 amps. If the current exceeds this value, the winding of the electromagnetand will burn out.
When the current goes through the coil, the core will become a magnet. Bring to him a body of iron or its alloy (steel, cast iron, etc.). It will pull the object to the base cylinder electrical steel (nickle magnet). If the force of attraction is small, increase the number of turns in the winding of the electromagnet. To do this, wrap the wire core of greater length. Note, however, that its resistance will increase in proportion to the length. When you reattach the electromagnetand bring the value of the current to the rated value. After disconnecting the electric current the magnetnye the properties of the core will be lost.
Advice 3 : How to make permanent magnet
Magnets required for production of the devices. Without them it is impossible to produce, for example, a hard disk of your computer or speaker system. Natural magnets are small, so to fully meet the needs of humanity can artificially created magnets.
You will need
- Screwdriver, oiled paper, fuse, circuit breaker, copper wire.
To make the easiest way magnet just after a few times in one direction along the magnetized strong permanent magnet. But a magnet will quickly lose its properties will have a weak magnetic field and can be used for simple actions, for example, to get the needle out of the cracks in the floor, or fasten bolts.
Magnetism with batteries. The electromagnet will impart the magnetic properties of the metal object. Consider the example of a screwdriver. A screwdriver, wrapped insulator, spool 200-300 turns of wire, which is used for the manufacture of transformers and connect it to the battery or the battery 5 to 12 volts. The electromagnetic field will magnetize the screwdriver.
To make a stronger permanent magnet you can use the following way by using the induction coil. Rod magnet must be of a size to completely fit inside of the coil. Follow the steps described above, but the turns take about two times more.
If you use the current of the mains - don't forget to put a fuse. Then connect the coil to the fuse. When plugging in the fuse can burn, but a strong electromagnetic field will have time to charge the metal inside the coil.
If you decide to make a permanent magnet in the home, do not forget about the safety rules. You need to be very careful and remember that you are working with high voltage, and it is dangerous for life. It may also cause fire due to short circuit. Be very careful!
A magnet may lose its properties if heated above 50 degrees Celsius, and in the case of impact or fall.