You will need
- Used for the construction of lightweight construction with precast elements or the use of local building materials. When choosing the type of country house designs the problem is to use a log frame or build a brick or concrete house. Prefabricated panel houses are sold in a set and in some cases are mounted by organizations-manufacturers.
- Advantages and disadvantages:
- Chopped log Benefits:
- - cheaper (except treeless regions) brick houses solid masonry
- - possibility of installation of foundations on the pillars
- - the smaller the thermal conductivity with the same thickness of the walls compared to the stone and concrete
- protected against moisture even when heating a cold house
- - quick warm-up Disadvantages:
- - the lack of fire resistance
- - less durability compared to the stone house
- - need a good protection from rain, painting of parts, protection from the snow the lower crowns log and forceps (gable walls of the attic)
- Brick and cinder block Advantages:
- - fire resistance
- - durability
- - good sound insulation
- - possibility of deep underground Faults:
- - more expensive than a wooden house
- - the need for the device strip Foundation
- - high complexity of construction and finishing
- - dampness, especially when heating a cold house
- - a longer warm up at home, the need for heating and the temporary reduction in temperature.
Foundation. The choice of type of Foundation, depth of its inception require careful attention and knowledge of the properties of the soil. One of the important factors the strength of the base is groundwater.You must know the depth of frost penetration.Best Foundation - rock and semi, coarse-grained, coarse-grained Sands, dry clay soils. The grounds peat bogs or silty sand clay or silt, which in the wet state to form quicksand. If the soils need to replace them sand bed of coarse sand ( in the excavated trenches or pits of sand placed in layers of thickness of 15-20 cm, tamp and water). The depth of the Foundation should be at least 0.5 m. For sand ( fine silty) sandy loams, loams and clay takes into account the level of groundwater. If the groundwater level is below 2 m from the depth of freezing, laying the Foundation not less than 70 cm from the grade elevation of the soil.If the groundwater level is closer than 2 m to the depth of frost penetration reaches or exceeds it, the depth of the Foundation should be not less than the estimated depth of frost penetration is 1.5; 1.7 m (depending on the construction). The most acceptable Foundation is columnar rubble concrete or Foundation of coarse gravel. On one part of cement to add 7-9 parts sand, one part water and mix thoroughly. Stone to be laid in a trench layers, up to 30 cm, pour the mortar and ramming. 10-15 cm above ground level and below floor level it is necessary to arrange waterproofing of two layers of rolled materials (roofing felt, roofing felt, asphalt). In the alternative, arranged cement screed 2 cm thick, one part cement, two parts sand, one part water. When the device strip foundations or brick zabirki between columnar foundations necessary to provide holes 15h25 cm for underground ventilation. They are placed one against the other in the opposite pedestals. Around the foundations necessary to make a pavement width up to 1 m of fat clay with a slope from the house.
Cellar. The essential design in the summer house is a cellar. At high groundwater level it is necessary to provide reliable waterproofing its floor and walls. It is desirable to resolve this issue before building a house. This will facilitate all the work. In the open pit is arranged a bed of gravel, rubble stone, red brick with a thickness of 20-40 cm Compacted by compaction and poured a layer of concrete. On concrete on a hot bitumen is glued to two layers of roofing material. The length of the webs of roofing material should be above ground water level to cover the outside and cellar wall. The wall lay directly on the inclined roofing material, with the outer side coated with hot bitumen in 2 time, at which a paste derived out of a cloth material. Seams of asphalt paintings close overlap. The interior decoration of the cellar with cement plaster is recommended on a metal grid. It should be fixed not only to walls but to the floor of the cellar. Plastered cellar cement-sand mortar, and then "zheleznjat" ( wet plaster sprinkled with a thin layer of dry cement and rubbed with a trowel). With dry soils or protected against penetration of atmospheric water waterproofing can only represent interior trim ( lining the floor and walls roofing material is excluded. It is used another way:sealing is arranged on the floor, starts from the outside is 20-30 cm on the walls of the cellar. Walls daubed with bitumen. Remember: the cellar walls spread only from red bricks.
Wall. The wall must be protected from atmospheric precipitation.The walls should start at 30 cm above ground level. Items that protrude from the plane of the wall more than 5 cm supplied with weirs. The overhanging cornice, which protects the walls from rain, to 50-70 cm Exterior finish or wall covering. Frame walls with the slab insulation made of reed or straw it is possible to plaster, smear with clay and whitewash, brick veneer, sheathing albopannin sheet. Brick veneer should have a solid Foundation. 5-6 rows of masonry it needs to be reinforced along the wall to two metal bars with a thickness of 2-3 mm. to Fix the bars to the wall with 6 mm bars at a distance of 1 m from each other in 5-6 rows of masonry. When the outer sheathing of planed boards and abiamiri upper row rests with overlap on the bottom row. This technique is well protects the walls from rain. Decking "lining" gives aesthetic look and at vertical trim.
The wall insulation. Is carried out using slab, coiled and loose materials. Effective mats of slag or glass wool and wood fiber soft plate.For the filling you can use a variety of materials:slag, expanded clay, vermiculite,pumice, sawdust,shavings, straw or reed chaff, etc. Organic materials must be pre-protection. Organic materials can be made of plate 50x50 or 70x70 depending on the step of the uprights of the frame, thickness of 10 cm For the 100 kg of the insulation must be 150 kg of gypsum and 250 l of water. Prepared dry mixture to wet and stir until smooth. Put in wooden folding forms. Dry under a canopy. The plaster can be replaced with clay or clay dough, lime or limy test. 100 kg of insulation should be 300 kg of lime or clay dough, water and not more than 200 l. This mixture can be put in the gaps between the paneling -not producing the plate. An important component of thermal insulation of walls is the vapor barrier. Applied roll materials: glassine, plastic film, etc. vapor barrier is always placed under the interior paneling.
Interior trim. Natural wood, lime whitewash plaster, masonry with rasshivkoj seams will hide some of the construction and give a spectacular look to the interior. Walls and ceilings wall-paper requires a more careful preparation.Wallpaper naughty in operation. When dampness of walls they peel, burst when drying.
Paul. The manufacture and insulation of the floor also need to pay attention to.Put "black" half of the slab or nestroganyh boards . All gap floor fluff clay.To put any kind of insulation (sand, slag wool, etc.). Then put a clean floor with rallying, and fit all the rules. For rigidity of the floor beam cross-sections is 14х9 and 16x9 cm with the distance between the beams is equal to 0.6 or 1 m.
Attic. Most are protecting the attic from overheating in summer than from the cold in inclement weather. If the attic is located on the terrace or veranda, it is necessary to insulate the floor. The insulation of the attic at a height of 2.2 m it is necessary to make a horizontal plaster ceiling. It will create additional heat barrier in the roof top. The loggia in the attic. This can lead to premature destruction of the house. Especially in a humid climate. The distance between the rafters is taken at 90-100 cm For the majority of roofs from rolled materials, abiamiri, steel) top view of the sheathing is a solid wood base. It will ensure the longevity of the roof.
Engineering equipment. Cottages electrificada. For heating used heating stoves for solid fuel, built of brick. It is possible to organize local water heating is to embed the coils in the oven or use of small boilers for solid fuel.For cooking you can use the LPG installation. If the model project, this option is not available, you must develop and agree on a simple project with the district organizations of the gas economy. Wardrobe with gas cylinders should be placed outside on the North side of the house. Gas leak-proof wiring and connections can be checked with a soap solution ( check with fire may lead to explosion).