- - heredity;
- - overweight;
- - stress;
- - infectious diseases and pathology of the pancreas;
- - the age.
Advice 2: How can I get cystitis
Advice 3: How not to get hepatitis
- - "Chloramine";
- - washing powder;
- - a container for boiling Laundry.
Advice 4: How you can get sick with pneumonia
Pneumonia occurs as a complication on the background of diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Laryngitis, pharyngitis, sore throat, etc, especially in General weakness of the patient's body and a low immune system, lead to bronchitis – inflammation of bronchi. If the bronchitis could not quickly and effectively treated, the infection spreads even further and captures the lung tissue. And so begins the pneumonia. This is the main variant of its occurrence.
Pneumonia may occur as a response of the organism to heavy inflammation, poisoning, violation of the integrity of bone tissue, surgery, etc. Why is this happening? The fact that the lungs, along with vital function – breathing, act as a filter, cleaning the air and blood from various toxins. This cleaning comes with external parties (inhaled air) and internal (neutralization of harmful substances produced by the body). If the body suddenly sharply increase the level of these toxins, the lungs can simply not cope with its role as a filter, just as it will not cope with its role of a barrier dam if the water level in the reservoir will suddenly increase.
Any large inflammatory process, severe burns, surgery (especially heavy), trauma - all this leads to the fact that the organism generated a huge amount of toxins. Their level can exceed critical, then the pneumonia.
The impetus for the development of pneumonia, may also serve as excessive dryness of the air, its dust, or use when wet cleaning and disinfection of chlorine-containing agents (chlorine, chloramine). Despite their effectiveness the pungent smell of chlorine can cause disease of the upper respiratory tract, which quickly spread inland.
Advice 5: Is it possible to get chicken pox a second time
Features of the disease
Chickenpox is a common title of acute viral disease smallpox, which is transmitted by airborne droplets, characterized by a unique susceptibility - it is almost 100 %. The causative agent of chickenpox is a virus of the Herpesviridae family — varicella-zoster. It can cause two clinically different diseases as chicken pox and shingles. If the first disease is more common in children, adults suffer from second patients.
As you know, when chicken pox occurs generalized rosolino-vesicular rash that does not affect the stratum germinativum and eventually completely healing. However, if instead of waiting for drying to comb and pull out the crust, you can damage the sprout layer of the skin. In this case, vesicles of a lifetime will remain atrophic scar, so doctors strongly recommend to the end to cure vetryanye crust.
Who is at risk of catching it again with chicken pox
Among experts there is an opinion that if the first time the clinical manifestations are not very pronounced (there is no temperature, there remains a satisfactory General condition, rash is not very common), people had "not fully", and in the course of life he faces re-infection. However, scientific evidence as refutation of this theory does not exist yet.
In the vast majority of cases, according to doctors, shingles is an activation of the virus varicella-zoster, "dormant" in the body of the patient years, and sometimes decades.
However, it is not contested that re-infection with chickenpox may, in some cases. It happens quite rarely, usually on the background of a significant reduction in the immune system - due to chronic conditions, serious illness, during treatment of cancer. According to some experts, the risk of reinfection can also threaten the elderly, pregnant women, blood donors and those who have suffered an abundant hemorrhage.
Despite the fact that immunity after chickenpox is considered lifelong, the disease agent can exist in the human body for a very long time after the disease. During exacerbation in humans, as a rule, there is no classic chicken pox, and the second type of disease that causes varicella-zoster - "shingles". According to some sources, there were cases when people not only twice, but thrice endured chicken pox. As you know, adults, unlike children, carry the chickenpox so quickly and easily. Sometimes the recovery may require at least a month. To say in advance how long it will take a period of rehabilitation is almost impossible.
Prevention of varicella, vaccination
In 1974, Japanese scientist Michiaki Takahashi created the vaccine strain, called Oka (in honor of the child of vetranary vesicles which were able to identify a virus). Based on this strain was developed first vaccine chickenpox - "Arawaks", forming a strong immunity for many years. As it was established according to the results of a study conducted in Japan, within 20 years after vaccination by a preparation "of Arawaks" none of the vaccinated patients did not get sick, that is formed almost one hundred percent immunity. In Russia, the Japanese vaccine "Arawaks" was officially allowed since 2010.
Since 1995, vaccination against varicella was included in the vaccination scheme of the calendar, operating on the territory of the United States. Vaccination against chickenpox is also included in the corresponding calendar in Australia and Austria, in several provinces of Canada.
In Russia chicken pox vaccine is not yet included in the list of mandatory.
Advice 6: Insulin pump for diabetics
The device is an insulin pump
Pump is quite a complex electronic device that consists of three main parts:
display and control panel;
cartridge containing insulin;
- system of tubes for subcutaneous administration of the hormone.
Manufacturers specializing in the production of devices very much. Most common are the following patterns: Accu check pump" (Assi-Check), "the Medtronic pump (Medtronic), Accu check combo (Accu-Check Combo), "Pump Omnipod" (OmniPod).
Modern devices are extremely smart and allow you to replace multiple daily injections of the hormone. For pumps used only insulin of short and ultrashort action. Currently available removable disposable sterile cartridges with these hormones, which further simplifies use of the device and reduces the risk of infectious complications. Children with diabetes, when using a pump is able to better adapt to their disease and avoid a number of psychological problems associated with the need for injections. Diabetes in pregnant women - another reason to use the pump at least in the period of carrying a baby.
How does the pump for insulin
The operation of the device is quite simple and approximates the mode of artificial insulin to its normal secretion in healthy people. There are two basic modes of operation of the device: bolus introduction of the hormone and the basal dose.
Mode basal rates involves continuous introduction of the hormone to maintain its blood concentration at a constant level between meals and at night. In fact, this mode replaces the injection extended insulin that a sick man is obliged to do a minimum of two times a day (depending on the specific type of insulin).
Mode bolus injection replaces the jokes hormone short or ultrashort action in connection with the meal. The quantity of insulin for basal dose and a bolus injection of a man selects himself, leaning on the doctor's recommendation and your lifestyle.
Thus, with the purchase of the pump in humans eliminates the need for injections.
Types of bolus injection and the basal profiles
Modern pumps there are different types of bolus administration, allowing you to choose the optimal mode of therapy depending on the kind of food eaten. For example, if the person takes food rich in carbohydrates, he chooses the "standard bolus", which implies the fastest introduction of insulin, contributing to the rapid return of blood glucose to normal values. If one eats food rich in proteins and poor in simple carbohydrates, it needs to choose a mode "square bolus". In this case, insulin is injected and distributed more slowly and the blood sugar level decreases smoothly. The modern pump, the more modes it has.
For basal rates, there are also different profiles, which allows to change the rate of administration and amount of insulin depending on time of day and physical activity.
Disadvantages of insulin pumps
The device has a few drawbacks:
- the high cost of pump and consumables;
- some patients find wearing the pump inconvenient;
- possibility of program failure or mechanical damage of the cartridge with insulin or tubes.