Advice 1: How you can get sick with diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease of the endocrine system associated with the violation of the formation of the hormone insulin in the body. The disease can be due to insufficient formation of the hormone in the tissues of the pancreas, and reduced sensitivity to the hormone produced.
How you can get sick with diabetes
You will need
  • - heredity;
  • - overweight;
  • - stress;
  • - infectious diseases and pathology of the pancreas;
  • - the age.
Instruction
1
Predisposing factors of diabetes, you can allocate quite a lot, but not always, the disease begins to develop and make progress, even if available. But the combination of these factors increases the risk of dozens of times.
2
Sick sugar diabetes a very real way, having a genetic predisposition. Medical observation found that in diabetes one parent, the risk to the child is 10 to 30% probability of pathology. If both parents are sick – the likelihood of diabetes in children is approaching 60-100%. The spread of numbers from different studies differ greatly, but one thing reliably – genetic predisposition exists and must be considered when entering into a marriage planning for children, etc.
3
The second factor that significantly increases the ability of the disease diabetes, especially of the second type is the regular overeating and obesity. When excess body mass by 20% the incidence of diabetes increases to 25%, the excess body mass by 50% the frequency of the disease is 60%.
4
Pathology of the pancreas, diseases of other endocrine glands, viral infections, such as chickenpox, rubella, infectious hepatitis, influenza and other diseases can start the process of getting diabetes mellitus.
5
Nervous stress in individuals with overweight and genetic predisposition, often be the trigger of the disease diabetes.
6
The older the person, the greater the chances of developing diabetes. And every 10 years after 50 years of life increase the chance twice.
7
Although the abuse of sweet is not believed to cause diabetes, however this habit at some point will also stand bad service. People that consume refined carbohydrates in excessive quantities, sooner or later faces with being overweight.
Note
Although accurate and direct causes of diabetes is not yet established, you must know that if your life will often be the same individual factors that contribute to the development of the disease, sooner or later it will arise. Especially if there will be a heredity and excess weight, the accession of any other factor increases the likelihood of disease.

Advice 2: How can I get cystitis

Cystitis – acute or chronic disease associated with inflammation of the bladder. Can develop in women and men due to various reasons. The patient feels pain, pain, frequent urge to urinate. Diagnosis and treatment prescribed by a doctor-urologist.
How can I get cystitis
Instruction
1
Cystitis can cause chlamydia, fungal diseases, viral infections, Streptococcus, Mycoplasma. Not even cured tooth decay can be a potential source for the appearance of cystitis. Also manifestations of cystitis can be caused by overcooling, the presence of foci of chronic infection in the body.
2
Bacteria and viruses can get into the bladder from the kidney, urethra, genitals. Recent studies of physicians have shown that the occurrence of cystitis can be triggered by a violation of vaginal microflora, colpitis, cervicitis, endometritis, parametritis.
3
Often cause cystitis helminthic infection, pyelonephritis, renal tuberculosis, injury of the urethra, but not all patients with these diseases will necessarily be diagnosed with cystitis. The immune system of a healthy person fights infection. As soon as there is a glitch in the immune system, arise from acute or chronic illness.
4
Favorable conditions for the development of cystitis are created for vitamin deficiency, fatigue, sedentary lifestyle, malnutrition, lack of hygiene of the genital organs, difficult birth. Also the occurrence of cystitis contributes to bladder catheterization, instrumental intervention, delayed emptying of the bladder.
5
Completely get rid of the cystitis is possible, but only if it is reliably identified and eliminated the cause of its appearance. If the disease is not treated, it will take a chronic form, the body temperature can rise to 40 degrees, there is a General intoxication, purulent Department they of the urethra, vomiting. The patient urgently hospitalitynet. The prognosis of complete cure of chronic cystitis adverse. So no need to self-medicate. You should immediately contact the doctor at the first sign of the disease.

Advice 3: How not to get hepatitis

Hepatitis - liver inflammation that develops as a result of the impact on the fabric of various pathogenic factors. Triggered by infectious disease viruses hepatitis A, b, C, D, E, F, G, Ti-Ti and Sen. In order not to fall ill with viral hepatitis, you need to follow certain safety rules.
How not to get hepatitis
You will need
  • - "Chloramine";
  • water;
  • soap;
  • - washing powder;
  • - a container for boiling Laundry.
Instruction
1
Hepatitis a is often called the "disease of dirty hands". Sources of infection – poorly washed vegetables and fruits, dishes, children's toys, and not the last heat treatment of foods (hepatitis E virus is transmitted similarly). Susceptibility to the virus causing this disease is very large.
2
Best way to prevent hepatitis A is to observe good personal hygiene, i.e. not to forget about "scented soap and the fluffy towel". Be sure to boil tap water. If someone from household got infected by this viral infection, treat his stuff and utensils "Chloramine" and also minimize contact with him.
3
Before and after preparing food be sure to wash your hands. For slicing raw products and those that do not require heat treatment, use different cutting boards. Be careful in the kitchen cupboard and the refrigerator raw food is not in contact with prepared dishes.
4
The hepatitis b virus is transmitted through blood and sexually. Because of this, medical and cosmetology centers for lesions of the skin and mucous membranes should be used are disposable and are well-sterilized instruments.
5
To be infected with the hepatitis C virus can be in the performance of tattoos and piercing, during surgical operations and blood transfusions, as well as when shared manicure sets, shaving equipment and toothbrushes. Also the transmission of HCV is sexually transmitted and from mother to child.
6
To avoid infection with hepatitis C virus do not use common household items. Also carefully wash the clothes of an infected family member (half-hour shestidesyatigradusnuyu washing will inactivate the virus, the same effect is achieved by the two-minute boiling).
7
Hepatitis D can only hurt those who already have hepatitis b (the disease leads to the complete destruction of the liver). To diagnose hepatitis D, E, F, G, Ti-Ti and Sen is very difficult: this would require special medical equipment.
Note
Hepatitis C virus is very tenacious: at room temperature in a dried drop of blood it retains its activity for four days.
Useful advice
Additional protection against hepatitis b is vaccination.

Advice 4: How you can get sick with pneumonia

Pneumonia is quite a common disease. In most cases it can be successfully cured. However, in the absence of qualified medical help pneumonia can lead to serious complications, even death. If the pneumonia occurs in infants or in the elderly, the probability of death is very large – up to 20%.
How you can get sick with pneumonia



Pneumonia occurs as a complication on the background of diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Laryngitis, pharyngitis, sore throat, etc, especially in General weakness of the patient's body and a low immune system, lead to bronchitis – inflammation of bronchi. If the bronchitis could not quickly and effectively treated, the infection spreads even further and captures the lung tissue. And so begins the pneumonia. This is the main variant of its occurrence.

Pneumonia may occur as a response of the organism to heavy inflammation, poisoning, violation of the integrity of bone tissue, surgery, etc. Why is this happening? The fact that the lungs, along with vital function – breathing, act as a filter, cleaning the air and blood from various toxins. This cleaning comes with external parties (inhaled air) and internal (neutralization of harmful substances produced by the body). If the body suddenly sharply increase the level of these toxins, the lungs can simply not cope with its role as a filter, just as it will not cope with its role of a barrier dam if the water level in the reservoir will suddenly increase.

Any large inflammatory process, severe burns, surgery (especially heavy), trauma - all this leads to the fact that the organism generated a huge amount of toxins. Their level can exceed critical, then the pneumonia.

The impetus for the development of pneumonia, may also serve as excessive dryness of the air, its dust, or use when wet cleaning and disinfection of chlorine-containing agents (chlorine, chloramine). Despite their effectiveness the pungent smell of chlorine can cause disease of the upper respiratory tract, which quickly spread inland.


Advice 5: Is it possible to get chicken pox a second time

Answering the question whether re-infected with chicken pox, experts disagree, as it depends on the aggregate influence of many factors.
Is it possible to get chicken pox a second time

Features of the disease



Chickenpox is a common title of acute viral disease smallpox, which is transmitted by airborne droplets, characterized by a unique susceptibility - it is almost 100 %. The causative agent of chickenpox is a virus of the Herpesviridae family — varicella-zoster. It can cause two clinically different diseases as chicken pox and shingles. If the first disease is more common in children, adults suffer from second patients.

As you know, when chicken pox occurs generalized rosolino-vesicular rash that does not affect the stratum germinativum and eventually completely healing. However, if instead of waiting for drying to comb and pull out the crust, you can damage the sprout layer of the skin. In this case, vesicles of a lifetime will remain atrophic scar, so doctors strongly recommend to the end to cure vetryanye crust.

Who is at risk of catching it again with chicken pox



Among experts there is an opinion that if the first time the clinical manifestations are not very pronounced (there is no temperature, there remains a satisfactory General condition, rash is not very common), people had "not fully", and in the course of life he faces re-infection. However, scientific evidence as refutation of this theory does not exist yet.
In the vast majority of cases, according to doctors, shingles is an activation of the virus varicella-zoster, "dormant" in the body of the patient years, and sometimes decades.


However, it is not contested that re-infection with chickenpox may, in some cases. It happens quite rarely, usually on the background of a significant reduction in the immune system - due to chronic conditions, serious illness, during treatment of cancer. According to some experts, the risk of reinfection can also threaten the elderly, pregnant women, blood donors and those who have suffered an abundant hemorrhage.

Despite the fact that immunity after chickenpox is considered lifelong, the disease agent can exist in the human body for a very long time after the disease. During exacerbation in humans, as a rule, there is no classic chicken pox, and the second type of disease that causes varicella-zoster - "shingles". According to some sources, there were cases when people not only twice, but thrice endured chicken pox. As you know, adults, unlike children, carry the chickenpox so quickly and easily. Sometimes the recovery may require at least a month. To say in advance how long it will take a period of rehabilitation is almost impossible.

Prevention of varicella, vaccination



In 1974, Japanese scientist Michiaki Takahashi created the vaccine strain, called Oka (in honor of the child of vetranary vesicles which were able to identify a virus). Based on this strain was developed first vaccine chickenpox - "Arawaks", forming a strong immunity for many years. As it was established according to the results of a study conducted in Japan, within 20 years after vaccination by a preparation "of Arawaks" none of the vaccinated patients did not get sick, that is formed almost one hundred percent immunity. In Russia, the Japanese vaccine "Arawaks" was officially allowed since 2010.
Since 1995, vaccination against varicella was included in the vaccination scheme of the calendar, operating on the territory of the United States. Vaccination against chickenpox is also included in the corresponding calendar in Australia and Austria, in several provinces of Canada.


In Russia chicken pox vaccine is not yet included in the list of mandatory.

Advice 6: Insulin pump for diabetics

Insulin pump (diabetes-pump, pump for insulin) – a special device for the continuous subcutaneous administration of insulin for patients with diabetes. The device significantly improves the quality of life of people suffering from this disease and avoids "spikes" in blood sugar, and therefore helps to reduce the risks of diabetes complications. Diabetes in children and adolescents – another indication for use of this device.
Insulin pump for diabetics

 

The device is an insulin pump

Pump is quite a complex electronic device that consists of three main parts:

display and control panel;

cartridge containing insulin;

- system of tubes for subcutaneous administration of the hormone.

Manufacturers specializing in the production of devices very much. Most common are the following patterns: Accu check pump" (Assi-Check), "the Medtronic pump (Medtronic), Accu check combo (Accu-Check Combo), "Pump Omnipod" (OmniPod).

Modern devices are extremely smart and allow you to replace multiple daily injections of the hormone. For pumps used only insulin of short and ultrashort action. Currently available removable disposable sterile cartridges with these hormones, which further simplifies use of the device and reduces the risk of infectious complications. Children with diabetes, when using a pump is able to better adapt to their disease and avoid a number of psychological problems associated with the need for injections. Diabetes in pregnant women - another reason to use the pump at least in the period of carrying a baby.

How does the pump for insulin

The operation of the device is quite simple and approximates the mode of artificial insulin to its normal secretion in healthy people. There are two basic modes of operation of the device: bolus introduction of the hormone and the basal dose.

Mode basal rates involves continuous introduction of the hormone to maintain its blood concentration at a constant level between meals and at night. In fact, this mode replaces the injection extended insulin that a sick man is obliged to do a minimum of two times a day (depending on the specific type of insulin).

Mode bolus injection replaces the jokes hormone short or ultrashort action in connection with the meal. The quantity of insulin for basal dose and a bolus injection of a man selects himself, leaning on the doctor's recommendation and your lifestyle.

Thus, with the purchase of the pump in humans eliminates the need for injections.

Types of bolus injection and the basal profiles

Modern pumps there are different types of bolus administration, allowing you to choose the optimal mode of therapy depending on the kind of food eaten. For example, if the person takes food rich in carbohydrates, he chooses the "standard bolus", which implies the fastest introduction of insulin, contributing to the rapid return of blood glucose to normal values. If one eats food rich in proteins and poor in simple carbohydrates, it needs to choose a mode "square bolus". In this case, insulin is injected and distributed more slowly and the blood sugar level decreases smoothly. The modern pump, the more modes it has.

For basal rates, there are also different profiles, which allows to change the rate of administration and amount of insulin depending on time of day and physical activity.

Disadvantages of insulin pumps

The device has a few drawbacks:

- the high cost of pump and consumables;

- some patients find wearing the pump inconvenient;

- possibility of program failure or mechanical damage of the cartridge with insulin or tubes.

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