# Advice 1: How to write off the cost of the goods

In view of the differences in accounting and tax accounting for organizations there are several ways to write off the cost of the product. Often accounting professionals use them all depending on the situation.
Instruction
1
For accounting purposes, the cost of goods can be written off as one of the methods: FIFO, the unit cost, average cost (item 16 PBU 5/01). For tax purposes apply the above three ways and also have the ability to write off the cost on a LIFO (PP. 3 clause 1 of article 268 of the tax code). Method write-off of goods sold is established in the accounting policy of the organization (accounting and tax).
2
The sale of goods in the accounting records reflect transactions: the debit 62 Credit 90/1 - proceeds from sales (including VAT);- 90/3 debit the Debit 68 "VAT" - the accrued VAT revenues.
3
Debiting cost of goods sold, when they implement the flip transactions:Debit 90/2 Credit 41/1 or Debit 90/2 Credit 41/2.
4
The method of writing off goods at average cost based on the assumption that goods are sold at the average cost that can be calculated by dividing the actual cost of goods of each type to the number of goods of the same kind. The valuation by the average cost produce for each type of inventory with the figures at the beginning and end of each month. With a difference of price for each shipment of goods, calculate the weighted arithmetic means in order to determine the average cost of the goods.
5
Method FIFO (first party in the ward - the first batch in the flow) is based on the assumption that goods are sold in the order they are received from suppliers. So, first and foremost sold goods received in the warehouse before, and therefore in the cost of goods sold is taken into account the cost of income earlier in time. The essence of the method of FIFO is that on disposal of the goods is deducted first product of the first received shipment. After complete write-off of goods from the first party proceed to the cancellation of the goods from the second party, etc.
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LIFO is totally opposite to FIFO, that is, in the cost of goods sold based on the price of the last batch of manufactured or purchased products.
7
Use the simplest, but most time consuming way of writing off of cost on the unit cost after the implementation of each of the goods, the transaction displays the cost of this specific product.The latter method is good for use in the implementation of piece goods and in the implementation of large shipments accountants prefer to use the method of writing off the goods at their average cost.

# Advice 2: How to write off transaction goods

The need for withdrawal of goods occurs after you hold any kind of inventory of property of the enterprise and identifying the presence or absence of expired, defective, lost, taken on samples or own needs of goods.
Instruction
1
Start by making a draft order of the Director for the conduct of the inventory Commission which structure necessarily have to be included financially responsible person. Approve the order about carrying out inventory of the enterprise Manager.
2
Swipe together with Commission inspection (inventory) of the property and goods of the company. Register the quantitative and qualitative availability of property, goods and the degree of its future suitability. The reasons for the unsuitability of the property of the goods.
3
In the case of utilization of goods required to make the act of disposing of the product, retaining full recycling (report form TORG-15 or TORG-16). For each unit of the enterprise make the act for the cancellation of the goods, signed by all members of the inventory Commission (report Form TORG-15 or TORG-16). If you need the write-off of the goods of the fight, damage or scrap, apply the act TORG-15, if cancellation of goods with expired shelf life – the act TORG-16.
4
Approve the act for the cancellation of the goods. The act says the head of the company or its designated official.
5
Guide accounting, you record transactions for write-off of goods on the basis of acts of inventory of commodity-material values. Costs incurred for inventory write-off and will include it in the article "organization Costs" in operating expenses for the period.
6
The wiring on the write-off of goods will issue in the following way:

– make an entry that reflects the price of the identified products (Debit, Credit 94 41);

- enter the previously paid VAT, if you decide so (94 Debit Credit 19);

- lock the recovered VAT accrued for payment in the budget (the Debit 19 Credit 68);

- make the entry to write off the item other expenses (Debit 91 sub-account 2 "other expenses" the Loan 94).

# Advice 3: As for accounting write-off goods

In the process of economic activities of the accountant and the head of the organization may be faced with this situation, as the write-off of defective or overdue goods. These defects can be identified during inventory and randomly. According to PBU 10/99 in accounting, such expenditures relate to other things.
Instruction
1
To write off the item, you must assign an inventory to the Commission. To do this, approve the composition of the inventory Commission, select a chair. To do this, make the order. In the same regulatory document, specify the object and date of the inspection, and the reason for its implementation.
2
After identifying the defective or damaged goods will issue a statement, which has a unified form n INV-26. If the goods are disposed of, a report of utilization (form TORG-16). This document must be signed by the head of the organization, as well as members of the Commission. If the product is utilized after the battle, make Approve all transactions with the order.
3
In accordance with article 146 of the Tax code for writing off defective merchandise , you must restore the amount previously paid VAT into the budget. For this make amended tax returns. Note that the purchase price of these products will not reduce taxable base at calculation of the profit tax. To natural loss a defective product also can not be attributed. And this we can conclude that the marriage is written off at the expense of own funds of the enterprise. Don't forget to reflect the restored VAT in the sales Ledger.
4
Goods write off in accounting. Do this following posting:Д94 K41 – identified overdue (faulty) goods;Д94 K19 – charged VAT of the purchase price is overdue (faulty) goods;D19 K68 – recovered VAT accrued for payment to the budget;Д91 sub-account "other costs" К94 – charged to an expired (defective) product.
5
If you do not want to recover previously paid VAT, be prepared for the fact that the tax inspector will come to you in the conflict. The goods must be transferred at sale prices, including tax on value added.

# Advice 4: How to determine the cost of commercial products

The creation of any product requires a variety of resources: monetary, human, natural, land, etc. to determine the cost of marketable products, you need to sum up all the financial costs to its production and implementation.
Instruction
1
To calculate the cost of products use several methods depending on how to keep records of costs: regulatory, process cost, poperedniy and order. In addition, there are several types of costs depending on various factors, including the degree of readiness of the product: gross product and sales.
2
To determine the cost of marketable products, you need to lay down the amount of manufacturing costs and overheads such as packaging, transportation, storage, various fees, etc.: STP = SS + HP.
3
Production cost is formed from the total cost of manufacturing minus nonmanufacturing costs and revenues in future periods. The first value represents the sum of the following elements:- material costs (procurement of materials, semi-finished products, raw materials, equipment, energy and fuel); - amortization (recovery of worn-out assets); - the remuneration of employees; - contributions to social funds (pensions, insurance) etc.
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Non-production expenses - expenses for construction or repair work at the enterprise;- the payment of third-party transport;- costs of economic activity, not associated with primary production.
5
Regulatory method for each product is calculated in advance of the regulatory cost, and during the reporting period adjustments are made according to local regulations. If you deviate from the standards set by its reason, and at the end of the period the total cost of commodity products as specified taking into account the variations and changes of norms.
6
To determine the cost of commodity products in process cost method it is necessary to divide the production cycle into the process and maintain an actual accounting of each of them. Poperedelnogo method with the cycle divided into stages, each of which ends with the creation of intermediate or finished product.
7
Job order costing involves costing on each individual order. Orders can be for different number of products and at different prices, the sum of all costs is formed at the stage of execution. The unit cost of production in this case is obtained by dividing the total value by the volume of consignment.
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