Usually the tax legislation of every country is thick, and Russia is no exception. Some taxes are Federal, going to the centralized budget of the state, and other regional to the local budget.
Income tax is taken from each employee and is 13% of salary. The entire amount of this Federal tax goes into the uniform account of the budget opened in the Central Bank. Later on certain standards of income income tax is distributed between regional budgets for state needs.
The property tax they pay as individuals – the owners of homes, villas, land, and legal entities – enterprises. The tax rate is set in the local government and should not be above the rate specified in the Federal legislation.
Profit tax is obliged to pay to the state each firm. The size of this tax is a percentage of the profit.
The value added tax (VAT) is payable by the seller of goods and services as a percentage of the value added of the goods – the difference between the actual sales price of the goods and the cost of its production. In our country VAT has appeared in the beginning of 1992, that is, with the transition to a market economy, and currently provides the largest portion of the total taxes.
The excise tax is a tax on the production and consumption of some specific goods which are in steady high demand (e.g., cigarettes, alcohol, gasoline).
All of these taxes are divided into direct and indirect. Direct paid directly from income or assets (e.g., income). Indirect – are included in the price of goods, but their direct payer – the seller, the buyer actually suffers (e.g. VAT, excise duties).
In most countries, including Russia, adopted the universal principle of taxing individuals. Every citizen must submit to the tax office personally, they filled a Declaration of their total income over the past year, including the amounts for all types of work. From this total income and calculates the income tax and withholding of income is punishable by law. There are countries where taxation is absent. It is countries like Bahrain, Kuwait, Brunei. If the company registers its branch, it does not violate the laws, while retaining the income.
Advice 2: Where do the taxes
As an adult and start earning money, every citizen must pay taxes. Pay taxes not only citizens, natural persons, and enterprises that are legal persons. The enumeration of certain types of taxes for citizens by employers, but some, for example, the property tax, they are required to list on their own. In this case, you will be able to see in the receipt the name of the recipient of all tax revenues – the Federal Treasury.
You will need
- The budget Code of the Russian Federation
Yes, all tax payments from individuals and legal persons enter the territorial offices of the state body, unit of the Ministry of Finance. But in the payment document should be specified not only the name of the payee, payer and amount, but the code of the budget classification. In this code the encrypted form of tax revenues. Incoming tax payments to the Treasury are processed and entered into the database of taxpayers with the indication of the tax that was paid.
And here begins the most interesting. Although all taxes and enrolled in the state Treasury, after that each of them is regulated on three levels of budgets that exist in Russia: Federal, territorial (regional, provincial or national) and local. For each type of tax has its own norms of deductions for these types of budgets. Some taxes can fully enroll in the income of the state, territory or municipality, and some regulated in the approved standards. These standards can change, they are approved annually simultaneously with the adoption of the next budget.
Today, for example, in the Federal budget fully allocated to the value added tax, customs duty, some types of excise taxes. Income tax goes to the budgets of Federal, Federation subject and local, tax on extraction of minerals – only in the Federal and local. Thus, taxes paid by citizens and organizations, form the revenues of the three levels of budget. Where does each tax and how it is distributed can be found in article 49.2 of the Budget Code of the Russian Federation.
Received by the income of the state budget revenues are spent, for example, for social needs, public debt service, provision of the defensive order, purchases of goods, works and services for state needs and for the provision of budget subsidies and investment. And the state budget financed, in particular: law enforcement, government agencies, special programs, administration, etc and local Territorial budgets are allocated to authorities of subjects of Federation and municipalities.