Advice 1: How to make ammonium nitrate

Salts of nitric acid or nitrate have rather wide application. The main two industries in which demand nitrate is agriculture, where ottocycle salts are used as fertilizers. And the second trend is the use of nitrate is the production of explosives. Ammonium nitrate is an effective nitrogen fertilizer for the main application and nutrient management of crops grown on all soil types. The greatest effect is achieved by the introduction of ammonium nitrate on proizvestkovannym soils. Ammonium nitrate is easier to buy in hardware stores, where it is sold as fertilizer. But you can try to synthesize it yourself.
How to make ammonium nitrate
You will need
  • Copper sulphate
  • Ammonia
  • Calcium nitrate, or calcium nitrate
  • Tubes
Does copper sulphate (you can buy at the hardware store) and mixed in a test tube with ammonia (sold at the pharmacy, can be taken from the home kit) to the slightly bluish hue while falls a precipitate of the hydroxide of copper.

CuSO4+2NH4OH => Cu(OH)2+(NH4)2SO4
The formulas are given in a simplified form, for ease of perception and adjustment.
The next moment is the direct production of ammonium nitrate. The resulting ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) is mixed with the calcium nitrate (which is also sold in hardware stores), we obtain a precipitate of calcium sulfate. Next, drain the solution out of the vial, which contains ammonium nitrate.

(NH4)2SO4+Ca(NO3)2 => 2NH4NO3+CaSO4
Ammonium nitrate in the form of crystals
It is better to buy ammonium nitrate, and not to attempt to obtain it. Salts of nitric acid are explosive substances failure to comply with the process of their synthesis, or violations of environmental factors (temperature, pressure, light). The obtaining of such substances should occur in the presence of experience with these salts.

Advice 2 : Why the need for nitrate

Nitrate is outdated, but still quite frequently used, the name of salts of nitric acid – nitrates. When working in the country as a nitrogen fertilizer widely used ammonium nitrate. Its appearance is white crystals, which is often due to impurities a greyish or pinkish hue. The substance is highly hygroscopic, absorbs moisture from the air, resulting in "caking".
Why the need for nitrate
Ammonium nitrate should be stored in dry, ventilated area. Before the actual use (i.e. soil) if necessary, grind the resulting lumps. The advantages of this fertilizer – low cost, easy absorption by plants, good solubility (due to the soil it is possible to make not only dry, but the liquid feeding). Note that in areas dominated by sod-podzolic and podzolic soils, ammonium nitrate is better to make a mixture with equal weight of ground limestone (calcium carbonate) to prevent acidification of the soil. Ground limestone is needed also in that case, if the vacationer decides simultaneously with ammonium nitrate to fertilize the soil with superphosphate. In this case, it is necessary to add from 10 to 20 weight percent of a mixture of nitrate/superphosphate. And at first mixed with superphosphate limestone, and then add nitrate.Some gardeners are faced with the problems of the stumps remaining after sawing the trees. Well, if the tree was relatively small – then to uproot the stump can be effortlessly. And if the big? In this case, the stump becoming a serious problem. To help its solution can also nitrate – only this time potassium. Correctly its name – potassium nitrate or potassium nitrate. Should be drilled (by hand or electric drills) a few deep holes in the side of the stump and fill them in potassium nitrate. After some time (determined empirically, since it depends on the size of the stump and wood density) the entire stump including the roots completely dry up, and it would be relatively easy to uproot. By the way, for this purpose you can use the same ammonium nitrate or sodium, but potassium nitrate works faster and more efficiently. Some gardeners also still use potassium and sodium nitrate in smoked meat. Nitrate plays the role of preservative and contributes to the acquisition of beautiful pink color product. But this method is insecure (as when there is an error with the dosage can happen the strong food poisoning), so it should be used with caution.

Advice 3 : How to fertilize with nitrate

Ammonium nitrate is a fertilizer that allows you to compensate for the deficiency of nitrogen in the soil. Nitrate should be used with caution only on podzolic soils, as it can increase their acidity. In alkaline and neutral areas its application is limited only by the characteristics of crops.
How to fertilize with nitrate
You will need
  • Ammonium nitrate, rakes, water.
Ammonium nitrate is the most inexpensive industrial fertilizer. It can be used all year round. Some gardeners scatter nitrate at the site directly on the snow. One of the features of this fertilizer is that it is able to work even in cold soil. In the spring, as soon as will thaw a thin top layer of soil, you can scatter the nitrate phase, slightly close up it with a rake. Using this method, you will prevent the starvation of spring nitrogen in perennial plants.
Many farmers prefer nitrate to other nitrogen sources, however, it should be remembered that nitrate is not suitable for foliar feeding. Never spray the plants with nitrate, otherwise instead of feed, you'll burn them. Nitrate can be found in the soil, not only with a rake. Optimal effect is achieved when applying this fertilizer to a depth of about ten inches, this will allow the maximum amount of nitrogen to remain in the soil.
Well, if you use a nitrate fertilizer when watering their plants. Nitrogen compounds perfectly soluble in water, this method is very convenient, since you don't have to dig or loosen the earth. In addition, these glazes contribute to a more uniform distribution of nitrogen, bringing it into deeper soil layers.
In late summer and autumn use nitrate need more caution. Excessive nitrogenous well-being can make the plant to increase the green mass, instead of giving a good harvest, especially the tomato plants and cucumbers. You may get a huge shrub with small, undeveloped fruits. In order to avoid such effects, about mid-July, begin to reduce the intensity of the dressing using ammonium nitrate.
Many people know that a glut of soil nitrogen contributes to the accumulation of nitrates. This is another reason that should not be abused ammonium nitrate in late summer. Just before harvest, about 10-20 days, stop feeding. To efficiently use the nitrate more active in the spring and early summer, it will allow the plants to get stronger and to gain strength.
A particularly good nitrogen fertilizing in the period of sowing seeds and growing seedlings.
Useful advice
If you are fond of cultivation of flower crops on your plot, you don't have to worry about the overabundance of nitrogen, the flowers usually respond to nitrate only lush blooms.

Advice 4 : What is nitrate

With nitrate is familiar to gardeners, their plants fed with nitrogen fertilizers. The hunters know that she is part black (smoky) gunpowder. Occasionally nitrate is used in home cooking when Smoking meat. What it represents from a chemical point of view?
What is nitrate

What does the term "nitrate"

Not only the professional chemist, but anyone versed in this science, as chemistry, knows that the term "nitrate" refers to salts of alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts containing the nitrate ion (NO3-). For example, KNO3 – potassium nitrate, NH4NO3 – ammonium nitrate, etc.

Before this name was officially used by chemists, but now it does not conform to the generally accepted rules of chemical nomenclature. For example, potassium nitrate should be called potassium nitrate or potassium nitrate. But people far from chemistry, still often use the term "nitrate". However, they often do not even suspect that nitrate may be different, depending on which ion, in addition to nitrate, included in its composition. The most common version of the origin of the word "nitrate" States that it is a corruption of the Latin expression salnitrum, that is, the Sol containing nitrogen".

What is the use of different types of nitrate

Potassium, sodium, ammonium nitrate is widely spread types of fertilizers. They are used for fertilizing plants with nitrogen. Before chemists learned how to obtain fertilizer, the main source of nitrogen fertilizer was deposits of nitrate. Especially rich deposits of sodium nitrate are found in Chile, in the arid Atacama desert. Nitrate extracted there were exported to many foreign countries, including Europe. One of the most important fertilizers for agriculture in many countries is the official term "Chilean nitrate", under which this substance was made out in all documents. After the start of production of artificial fertilizers, the export of Chilean nitrate has dropped significantly, but still rests on a fairly high level.

Gardeners of Russia used to feed plants, mainly ammonium nitrate, as the most common and affordable. It can be found in almost any store which sold seeds. But often used and potassium nitrate, because it is a source not only of nitrogen but also very important to plants of the micronutrient potassium.

Potassium nitrate along with charcoal and sulfur used in the manufacture of black powder. Ammonium nitrate is also a raw material for the manufacture of some types of explosive substances, such as ammonal.
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