Advice 1: How to make ammonium nitrate

Salts of nitric acid or nitrate have rather wide application. The main two industries in which demand nitrate is agriculture, where ottocycle salts are used as fertilizers. And the second trend is the use of nitrate is the production of explosives. Ammonium nitrate is an effective nitrogen fertilizer for the main application and nutrient management of crops grown on all soil types. The greatest effect is achieved by the introduction of ammonium nitrate on proizvestkovannym soils. Ammonium nitrate is easier to buy in hardware stores, where it is sold as fertilizer. But you can try to synthesize it yourself.
You will need
  • Copper sulphate
  • Ammonia
  • Calcium nitrate, or calcium nitrate
  • Tubes
Does copper sulphate (you can buy at the hardware store) and mixed in a test tube with ammonia (sold at the pharmacy, can be taken from the home kit) to the slightly bluish hue while falls a precipitate of the hydroxide of copper.

CuSO4+2NH4OH => Cu(OH)2+(NH4)2SO4
The formulas are given in a simplified form, for ease of perception and adjustment.
The next moment is the direct production of ammonium nitrate. The resulting ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) is mixed with the calcium nitrate (which is also sold in hardware stores), we obtain a precipitate of calcium sulfate. Next, drain the solution out of the vial, which contains ammonium nitrate.

(NH4)2SO4+Ca(NO3)2 => 2NH4NO3+CaSO4
Ammonium nitrate in the form of crystals

Advice 2: How to make nitrate

Nitrate is used for the manufacture of pyrotechnic compositions, the manufacture of wicks, impregnation of paper, as the oxidant. Potassium nitrate (potassium nitrate) used to be sold in retail stores, selling agricultural products, and now, to get it, you need components that can be purchased separately.
You will need
  • - ammonium nitrate;
  • - potassium chloride;
  • - potash;
  • soda;
  • - water.
Prepare components for getting potassium nitrate: ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride. Take these substances in the ratio 1:1, and separately dissolve in boiling water. This should take three parts ammonium nitrate to one part water and one part potassium chloride to two parts water.
The resulting solutions mix and let it evaporate on low heat. Carry out the procedure in a well ventilated area or outdoors, because the reaction, the excreted ammonia, which has an unpleasant odor.
When in the course of the reaction will no longer stand out smoke, place the resulting solution in a refrigerator and cool until then, until the precipitate does not appear long crystals shaped like needles. The resulting crystals are the required potassium nitrate. Collect the crystals, rinse them quickly with water and dry. Nitrate ready to use.
If the opportunity to purchase potassium chloride you have, use it instead of potash. For its production you can use the ash resulting from the combustion of ordinary leaves. In this case, the purity of the nitrate will be slightly lower.
To obtain the sodium nitrate use the same method, taking potassium chloride instead of soda. The ratio of ammonium nitrate to the soda should be 1:1 if the baking soda and 6:4 if soda ash. The mixture pour warm water. After that, the reaction starts with evolution of ammonia and carbon dioxide. The solution was then heat on a water bath until gas evolution ceased, and even better – boil for two hours. Then filter the solution and evaporate. Since sodium nitrate is actively absorb moisture, it should dry more thoroughly, and store in a dry place, protected from moisture.
It is better to buy ammonium nitrate, and not to attempt to obtain it. Salts of nitric acid are explosive substances failure to comply with the process of their synthesis, or violations of environmental factors (temperature, pressure, light). The obtaining of such substances should occur in the presence of experience with these salts.
Is the advice useful?